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63 Cards in this Set

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sentence linker (polite)

and (not just but)
が/けれども

けど
to have just done something, to have just finished doing something

Since she has just entered college, she is probably 18.

(use the subjective one, not the literal)
Vた ばかり

大学に入ったばかりだから、十八歳でしょう。
having to do with perception - not literal
that ~

That town is called Exeter, where I was born.
あの - if both are familiar (with it)
その - when only one of them is familiar with it

そのExeterという町は私が生まれたところです。
a change which has taken place, or will take place

I will become able to read Japanese newspapers.
V(plain) ようになる

日本語の新聞がよめるようになる。

for adj's drop ように and:
い adj change to -く
な adj change to -に
it has been decided
or
it is a general rule/custom that

It has been decided I will not graduate.

It has been arranged that I will be working at a Japanese company.

When you enter a house it is the custom to take your shoes off.
ことになる
ことになっている

日本の会社で仕事をするとになりました。

家に上がる時、くつをぬぐことになっています。
when non-generic it indicates the decision was made beyond your control
Where are you from in Japan?
日本はどちらですか。
don't use で
this person

This person is my classmate, Jon.
こちらは

こちらは私の同級生のJonさまです。
the thing/person called ~
(colloquial and written)

The person called Jon, is tall.
という
って

ジョンという人は背が高い。
What is 知識豊富?
とは=って

「知識防府」って何ですか。

use とは when asking for a definition or explanation

(if you see って + Qword it is とは)
as well as

I was born as well as raised in NH.
~Vのも。。。~Vのも

生まれたのも育ったのもNHなんです。
What would be good to say?
~ばいいでしょうか

なんて言えばいいでしょうか。
without doing

I will study without watching TV.
~ないで

テレビを見ないで勉強する。
didn't do and ~
didn't do and (so) ~

I didn't eat and so my stomach hurts.

I didn't meet my friend in Japan, and that's too bad.
~なくて

日本で友達に会わなくて残念でした。
often implies a reason, or just links two sentences together
Offer a suggestion as to the correct kind of behavior. (slightly admonishing)

You should go to bed earlier.
~ばいいのに

早く寝ればいいのに。
moreover, besides

My head hurts, and moreover I have a small fever.

This apartment is pretty. Moreover the rent is cheap.
それに

頭が痛くて、それに熱もちょっとあるんです。

このアパートはきれいだ。それに家賃が安い。

adding something of a similar nature to the previous clause
(rel. しかも)
and what is more

The apartment is incredibly spacious. What is more, the rent is cheap.
しかも

このアパートはものすごく広いです。しかも家賃が安いです。

adding something of a suprising nature to the previous clause
(それに could not be used here)
is not easily done or takes time

I couldn't fall asleep easily.
なかなか Vない

なかなか眠れませんでした。
Embedding a question into a sentence.


I don't know when he will go to Japan.

I don't know if he is going to Japan or not.
Qか分からない

いつ日本へ行くかわからない。

日本へ行くかどうか分かりません。
and so, because of
cause and effect

It was pouring rain this morning. And so the bus was late.

It will rain today. So I think I will bring my umbrella.
それで
だから

今朝はザーザー降りだった。それで/だからバスが遅れた。

今日は雨が降る。だからかさを持って行こう。(can't use それで)

don't use それで with
desire
suggestion
invitation
request
there is/are a lot, many

There are a lot of people in Japan.
多い

cannot modify nouns

日本には人が多い。
to have interest [in]

I am interested in sports
Sは somethingに 興味 がある

スポーツに興味がある。
take a vacation
(not 休み)
休暇を取る
to like, to be fond of

I am fond of UBC campus.
Sは ~が 気に入る

私はUBCのキャンパスがきに:
入りました
入っています
入りません

don't use っている for neg (like 知っている、知らない)
to be just about to do something

(to have just done something)
(to be [just] in the middle of doing something - lit)
ところ だ
use for intentional acts - you definitely know you will do it
ばかり = more of a perception
ところ = more literal, not what you felt
it looks like ~

(only visual info)

It looks expensive.
そうだ

~くなさそうだ - negative
そうな - modifies a noun

高そうだ。
高くなさそうだ。
高そうなぺんです。
to be late [for]
「に」遅れる
a reply when you don't really want to give a reason
ちょっとそこまで
somehow [you are doing it]

Somehow I am doing my best.
なんとか

なんとか頑張っています。
it is about ~

Actually, its about the next final exam.
のこと

実は、今度の期末試験のことなんですけど。
to forget

I forgot (in the past).
I forgot (in this moment).
I am forgetting/not remembering the teachers name.
忘れる

忘れた
忘れていた
覚えていない 「=忘れている」
忘れている (cannot be used with 私)
I am sorry but...

(formal/informal)
悪いけど。。。

申し訳ありませんが
Do you mind if...

Do you mind if I sit here?
~もかまいませんか

ここに座ってもかまいませんか。
Would you permit me to do...?

Would you please let me take the exam one day earlier?
Causativeて+いただけないでしょうか

前の日に試験を受けさせていただけないでしょうか。
if that's the case

I'm really cold.
If that's the case lets go eat ramen.
そういうことなら

とても寒いんです。

そういうことならラーメンを食べに行こう。
Could you bring it over here (from him) for me?
もらってきてくれない?
Format for asking for a favour.

Opening: Is now a good time?
Actually...blah...reason. And so...
実は。。。んです。それで。。。
I would appreciate if you could help me...

...make japanese flashcards (for me).
~てもらえると助かる

助かる (vi.t)ー has connotation of being greatful for being helped

日本語のフラッシュカードを筑ってもらえると助かる。
May I receive your favour of V...ing
Vてもらってもいい

もらってもよろしい
things like, etc
なんて
などと
older by one year (sibling)
younger by 3 years (sibiling)

My brother is four years older than me.
一つ上
三つ下

兄は僕より四つ上です。
famous for ~

a town famous for beer

That town is famous for its beer.
~で有名だ

ビールで有名な町

その町はビールで有名です。

note: If you use an adj do
adjことで有名
(きれいなことで有名)
(美しいことで有名)
The third largest city
三番目に大きい町
not particularly

Swahili is not particularly interesting.
別に。。。ない

Swahiliは別に面白くない。
What is his name?

(lit. What is he called?)
何ていう人
to decide on

I will have sukiyaki.
~にする

私は、すきやきにします。
to give

very formal, from a superior to an inferior
与える
What should I do?

(two forms)
どうしたらいいでしょうか

どうすればいいでしょうか
indirectly state opinion, suggest opinion

I have to come think that the level is too high.
ように思う

私はレベルが高すぎるように思うんです。
written form of ちゃんと
きちんと
give softer opinion with 方がいい

もっと勉強したほうがいい
Vplain ほうがいい

もっと勉強するほうがいい
one cannot do for social/moral reasons

We can't speak Japanese at an American party.

Even though I am busy, I have no choice but to sleep.
~わけにはいかない

普通のアメリカノパーティーで日本語を話すわけにはいきません。

忙しくても寝ないわけには行きません。

goes with そうかと言って
dictionary form - cannot do for moral/social reasons
neg form - is affirmative, cannot help but do
if this state continues
この調子だと
that's what you say but..

qualifies preceding statement

Japanese grammar is hard.
Yes but we have to study it.
(lit. we are obligated to study it)
そうかと言って

日本語の文法が難しい。

そうかといって、勉強しないわけにはいかない。
to try it and see

How about trying it out and seeing how it goes?
様子を見ると

様子を見たらどうですか。
after doing V

After consulting with my parents, I will reply.
Vた上で

両親と相談した上でお返事します。

polite form, verb is always something important
 
after that

Yesterday I went shopping. After that I went to my friend's party.
それから

emphasizes that an event follows another event

きのうは買物に行きました。それから友達のパーテイーへ行った。

そして can be used instead of それから
and (generic)

Yesterday I went to a Japanese restaurant and ate sushi.
そして

きのうは、日本料理室へ行った。そしておすしを食べた。

*それから cannot be used here instead of そして
because of that

It was snowing. The flight was delayed because of that.
それで

presents a reason or a cause

雪が降りました。それで、飛行機が遅れたんです。
must not do

You must not be late for class.
いけない

クラスに遅れるといけない。
If I am not mistaken...

If I am not mistaken, the population of Japan is 120,000,000.
たしか

日本の人口は、たしか一億二千万ぐらいでしよう。
Certainly...

Certainly I am the one who was wrong.
たしかに

たしかに、私が悪かったです。
to notice

I wasn't aware of my mistake.
~に気がつく

間違いに気がつきませんでした。
indicating someone has gone to a great deal of trouble

Please try not to forget kanji, which you have spent considerable time and energy to learn.
せっかく

せっかく習った漢字は忘れないようにしましょう。