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119 Cards in this Set

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etiology
refers to causes of disease including direct and predisposing cuases
hematoylin & eosin stain
H&E stain - routine stain used in study of histopathology. Hematoxylin - basic, stains basophilic. Acidic cellular components stain blue. Eosin - acidic, stains acidophilic. Basic cellular components stain pint to red
histopathology
synonymous with microscopic pathology and refers to study of cellular changes in deiseased tissues using light microscope and various staining techniques
lesion
refers to macroscopic or micrscopic abnormality in tissue as result of disease
morbid pathology, gross pathlology
refers to macroscopic alterations in tissue found at necropsy examination
morbidity rate
general and variously used term expressing ration of diseased indivuals in relation to the population in which they occur (sick rate)
morphologic diagnosis
name the lesions present
mortality rate
ratio of the number of deaths to the population in which they occur. The mortality rate expresses the number of deaths in a unit of population within a prescribed time (death rate)
necropsy, autopsy
postmortem examination of a body
pathogen
any disease producingagen
pathogenseis
includes the known (or proposed) stages of development, and involved mechanisms of a lesion or disease process. generally includes etiologic factors and all important stages from inception to development of the characteristic leision
pathogenicity
refers to capacity of producing disease. Qualitative term not quantitative. Tells whether susceptible or not
pathognomonic
gross or histopathological lesion that is characteristic of a specific disease and distinguishes this particular disease fform other diseases
post mortem
reffering to the state follwoing death
prognosis
the predicted outcome of patient recovery from its deisease as indicated by the nature and extent of the clinical signs and or lesions
symptom
subjective manifestation or expression of disease on the part of a patient
sign
objective evidence or physical manifestation of disease
ulcer
interruption of continuity of epithelial surface. Involves entire depth of surface cells and implies disruption of basement membrane.
virulence
quantitates the degree of pathogenicity. Usually refers to the disease-producing power of microorganisms. This is a quantitative term
zoonosis
infection or an infectious disease of animals transmissible under natural conditions to humans.
pyknosis
nuclear shrinkage- condensed chromatin - characteristic of necrosis
karyolysis
nucleus broken down - will see just a shadow of nucleus or no nucleus @ all - characteristic of necrosis
Is pyknosis characteristic of necrosis or apoptosis?
necrosis
is karyolysis characteristic of necrosis or apoptosis?
necrosis
karyorrhexis
nuclear fragmentation - may indicate apoptosis or necrosis
malacia
softening of tissue in disease
caseous necrosis
-crumbly cheese appearance to tissue
pathogneumonic
diagnostical - when you see it you know what it is caused by or what it is
ecchymosis
hemorrhagic lesions in range of 4-10mm
petchiae
pinpoint (1-2mm) hemorrhagic lesions
flocculent
congregating together (areas of dense vs nondense cells)
moribund
dying, at point of death
equivocal
of uncertain nature or significance
serosa
a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body
urticaria
hives- localized edema
metastasize
To spread from one part of the body to another
atrophy
a reduction in tissue mass or volume. Loss of cell can produce gross appearance of this
hypertrophy
increase in tissue mass or volume
hyperplasia
increase in cell numbers without significant change in their cellular structure or function
metaplasia
a reversible change in which one cell type is replaced by another type that is not normal to that tissue or organ. Such adaptive changes are only between cell type sof the same germ line (epithelium to epithelium etc.) Occurs via signals received by primitive cells in a population, NOT by making mature cells become cross-dressers. This is ALWAYS pathologic. Usually results from chronic irritation to tissue, constantly stresses cell constituents leading to change in overall appearance and constituent make up. Cells genreally unable to perform normal function, just trying to survive
dysplasia
loss of regular differentiation and orderliness. Usually accompanies by cellular atypia such as pleomorphism and hyperchromasia. Atypical proliferative changes in response to chronic irritation or nutritional deficiency and are not adaptive changes (cells have run amuk!) Generally considered pre-neoplastic lesion
atypia
state of being not typical
Neoplasia
tissue growth which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change
cirrhosis
Chronic interstitial inflammation of any tissue or organ - usually involving liver (a condition in which the liver becomes scarred, fibrous, and filled with fat,)
calcinosis
the formation of calcium deposits in any soft tissue
myiasis
the invasion and feeding on living tissues of humans or animals by dipterous (fly) larvae.
benign
not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
malignant
dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)
anaplasia
failure to differentiate (NOT dedifferentiation). A change in the character of a cell type such that it appears more primitive. An irreversible change associated with malignancy.
pleomorphic
Occurring in various distinct forms. In terms of cells, having variation in the size and shape of cells or their nuclei.
-oma
benign tumors usually named by attaching this suffix to the name of the cell from which the tumor arises
sarcoma
naming of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin
carcinomas
naming of malignant tumors of epithelial origin
adenoma
benign epithelial neoplasms of glandular origin
papilloma
benign epithelial neoplasms on an epithelial surface
polyps
benign masses that project above the surface of a tissue
Go cells
nondividing population - resting labile or stable cells capable of regeneration with correct signals
F cells
nondividing population of terminally differentiated permanent cells
agenesis
complete absence of tissue / organ development
aplasia
rudimentary nodule of tissue representing organ, but it never developed into functioning organ
atresia
failure of opening to develop & become/remain patent
hypoplasia
organ small than normal but has nomral shape
dysplasia
tissue is abnormally shaped, can distinuish what type of tissue it is but it is not in correct form
hamartoma
local outgrowths that belong where they are. Recieve same signals as other similar tissues so they grow & develop at the same rate but since there is excess cells/tissue it grows larger than normal. Strawberry birthmarks are an example of having too much vasculature
choristoma
tissue growing @ same rate as other similar tissue but is in location that it doesn't belong.
dysmorphogenesis
developmental or congenital anomalies (the process of abnormal tissue development)
dermoid cyst
a cyst containing skin, or structures
connected with skin, such as hair.
ectopic
in the wrong place
ichthyosis
inherited problem w/ zinc metabolism. Animal will develop scale like accumulations where skin should be.
arthrogryposis
Rigid fixation of the joints; usually in flexion but occasionally in extension.
aneuploidy
chromosomal problems. Variation in chromosome number involving one or a small number of chromosomes; commonly involves the gain or loss of a single chromosome
necrosis
breakdown of cellular components after cell death.
autolysis
breakdown of tissues after the death of animal
cellular atrophy
reduction in cell size. Reversible condition
autophagy
Digestion of the cell's own organelles.
cellular hypertrophy
increase in cell size. Invovles increase in cellular constituents (not cell numbers)
vacuolation
accumulation of water in cell compartments
lipidosis
accumulation of lipid vacuoles
apoptosis
active cell death.
caspases
family of cysteine proteases. Have specificity for asparate residues. Present as proenzymes and are activated by proteolytic cleavage. Autoactivation via aggregation, creating a cascade of activation. Act on a variety of substrates (regulatory & structureal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, nuclear lamins). Activate CAD by cleaving CAD-ICAD complex leading to the cleavage of DNA
caspase 3
an important executioner caspase. It is a final common pathway
caspases 8,9 & 10
initiator caspases
hyalinization
smooth homogeneous appearance
coagulation necrosis
necrotic lesion that continues to hold original tissue shape
liquefaction necrosis
necrotic lesion that becomes soft (malacia) and looses shape of original tissue
caseous necrosis
necrotic lesion that has a crumbly cheese appearance
gangrene
synonymous with necrosis (dry & wet forms indicating coagulation and liquefaction necrosis respectively)
superoxide dismutase
enzyme involved inconversion of O2 to H2O2 (in lipid peroxidation)
Reperfusion injury
increase in free radicals and metabolites follwoing return of blood flow supply.
ionophores
drugs or toxins that can bind metal ions in solution and transport them across lipid barriers in natural or artificial membranes.
opsonization
binding of certain complement factors to cell surface to allow cell to be recognized by phagocytes for destruction
dystrophic
describes extracellular deposits that result from damaged components of cells or tissues - aortic mineralization and splenic capsular siderocalcinosis are two examples
metatrophic
describes extracellular deposits resulting from problems with Ca2+ / PO4 metabolism
myopathy
condition of progressive muscle weakness
paraneoplastic
disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. A large number of these phenomena are mediated by the immune system.
nidus
An abnormal network of blood vessels that improperly connects arteries directly to veins
pneumoconiosis
dust retained in the lung
anthracosis
form of pneumoconiosis involving carbon in the lung
hematoidin
precipitated bilirubin - a bile pigmentbili verdin
biliverdin
intermediary product in formation of bilirubin - a bile pigment
bilirubin
product of hemoglobin catabolism. Pigment responsible for yellow discoloration of tissues
hematins
pigments formed by action of acid/alkali on hemoglobin - not normal breakdown products. Contain iron but don't stain w/ iron stains because the iron is tightly bound.
hemosiderin
an iron pigment derived from hemoglobin. It is chemically the same as ferritin. It occurs principally int he red pulp of the spleen but in other places where disintegration of RBCs has occured.
porphyrins
photosensitizing substances
congential porphyria
metabolic defect in metabolsim of porphyrins. abnormally high level of porphyrins in body.
Hepatotoxic photosensitization
Condition of photosensitizng pigments in tissues resulting from interference with excretion of phylloerythrin
lipofuscin pigments
group of yellow to brown substances derived mainly or partly from lipids or lipoproteins. Usually through to be end-products of cell membrane degeneration.
pseudomelanosis
a greyish to black surface discoloration of the liver, kidney, abdominal or intestinal walls. In patches over extensive areas. Due to postmortem bacterial action on blood in the involved organs with the formation of hydrogen sulfides
melanosis
grey to black pigment of the meninges, brain parenchyma, gastric & intestinal mucosa, kidney an dadrenal cortices, lung, larynx, esophagus and intima of major vessels as they leave the hear. Normal - not due to autolysis
tracheal froth
accumulation of foam with or without blood, filling airways, even the trachea. Often considered pathognomonic for pulmonary edema, it can be seen in any animal that dies slowly, allowing serum to leak from capillaries into the airways and then to be mixed to a froth as the lungs collapse after death.
cold cataracts
distinct white opacity of the lens of dead animals stored at colder than room temperature. Often disappear on warming carcass
valvular edema
accumulation of clear fluid in AV valves along entire width, but especially at their base. Also seen at bases of aortic and pulmonary valves. Common terminal event without significance.
physiologic hyperemia
well-marked reddening of all or a portion of the stomach or intestine w/o exudate, edema, or hemorrhage present to suggest inflammation. It is often mistakenly called hemorrhagic inflammation and is commonly seen in all species not bled out after death, allowing blood to remain in capillaries.
teratogenic
Causing birth defects.
cancer
any malignant neoplasm
scirrhous
description for gross morphologic appearance of neoplasm that is HARD
desmoplasia
This term refers to the growth of fibrous or connective tissue. description for gross morphologic appearance of neoplasm. Means BAND OR LIGAMENT
antigenic
being able to induce an antibody response.
angiogenesis
development of new blood vessels