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46 Cards in this Set

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Ruby Bridges
A second grader form New Orleans, Ruby Bridges was threatened by white, angry, racist mobs every way during her trips to and from school, because she was the only black student in an all-white elementary school. This story proved that the integration of schools was difficult for even good-willed whites, but could be a transformative experience for those who were previously segregated.
Thurgood Marshall
A prominent lawyer of the 20th century, Marshall was the primary lawyer on behalf of the NAACP, and thus helped them bring about cases such as Brown v. Board of Education. Because of his immense success with this case as well as others, he was the first African-American to be appointed to the Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
The first huge victory legislatively for the NAACP, this decision stated that the segregation of schools based on race was unconstitutional, because it forced those who were discriminated against to feel inferior and thus not equal to the white children. This case also overturned the previous ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson of separate but equal facilities with a unanimous decision.
Southern Manifesto 1956
Pledged by many states in the south, it said that Southern whites would use all legal means to preserve legal segregation in their schools, hoping that the SC’s ruling would not be enforced.
Rosa Parks
A secretary for her local branch of the NAACP, she was planted on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama and famously did not give her seat at the front of the bus to a white man, thus beginning the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
Started after the incident with Rosa Parks, 30,000 black men and women boycotted the bus system in Montgomery, making a cab-like system for them to get to work everyday. Because this hurt both the city and the state economically, the Supreme Court ultimately ruled segregation on public transportation illegal in 1956.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
As a twenty-seven year old, he emerged as a leader during the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and thus was brought to national attention as a Civil Rights Leader. He had a theology doctorate from Boston University, and did not advocate violence as an impetus for change.
Non violent civil disobedience
An idea advocated by MLK, it was based on Ghandi’s philosophy, and was used effectively to affect the changes in government against African-Americans through peaceful protests and sit-ins.
Integration of Central H.S., Little Rock, AR 1957
White officials in Arkansas refused to integrate Central High School, including Governor Faubus, who ordered the National Guard to leave to maintain order. Because of the threats of 1000 white students that faced only nine black students, Ike reluctantly ordered federal troops to replace the National Guard to protect the civil rights of the black students.
Civil rights sit-ins 1960
Starting in North Carolina, where black college students launched sit-ins at segregated lunch counters, sit-ins became common, so that black students could violate racial segregation laws without violence. This inspired a second wave of civil rights movement, which was directed to take action, not through the legal system, but to directly challenge racial laws and attitudes.
Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC)
Led by MLK, many other Southern ministers who were dedicated and courageous were part of the SCLC to work towards and preach for non-violent change.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Growing out of the sit-ins present in North Carolina, the SNCC represented the more militant and younger generation of civil rights activists, and who were impatient with the slow pace of reform.
Freedom Riders 1961
These men tried to desegregate the Southern bus system and transportation system, but angry white mobs attacked their buses in many Southern towns.
Freedom Summer 1962
A voting project led mostly by CORE and SNCC, Freedom Summer was started to improve the voting registration and turnout of African-Americans. This continued through 1965, where both white and black volunteers organized a registration drive in Mississippi.
James Meredith and integration of University of Mississippi 1962
James Meredith, armed with the troops of the Federal government, tried to integrate the University of Mississippi, but a violent mob broke out with two people being killed ad 375 wounded, because demonstrators got guns to attack the US Army.
Martin Luther King’s Letter From a Birmingham Jail 1963
Because of bombs exploding in African-Americans churches, riots broke out in Birmingham, eventually landing MLK in jail. His Letter From a Birmingham Jail classically advocated the justice of nonviolent civil disobedience, and proved to influence JFK to propose a major civil rights bill to end racial segregation and protect black voters.
March on Washington 1963
Started in support of the proposed civil rights legislation, the march on Washington consisted of 250,000 people from the North and South who peacefully gathered at the Lincoln Memorial to here from both black and white prominent civil rights leaders. The highlight of this was the famous “I have a dream” speech by MLK.
JFK Assassination 1963
JFK, while visiting Texas to get Democratic support for the next year’s election, was assassinated by the assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, an Army veteran who was a Marxist and a supporter of Castro. After this, the Warren Commission, started by LBJ, was formed to search for the truth about the assassination, but it was found that there was no conspiracy.
Civil Rights Bill 1964
Passed by LBJ over the filibustering Southern senators, the Civil Rights Bill barred discrimination in all public accommodations, authorized the US Attorney-General to bring federal suits to remove discrimination, and outlawed discrimination in employment by race, color, sex or national origin.
Voting Rights Act 1965
This act suspended literacy tests and authorized the federal supervision of elections in many southern districts, which led to the black registration of voting to double in the next five years.
Black Power
Unfortunately, the civil rights legislation did not eliminated segregation because of white racism and customs, so militant blacks began to question the effectiveness of integration, and thus thought the solution would be black power, thinking the African-American race to be superior and completely separate.
Malcolm X
An ex-convict, Malcolm X was extremely influential in the Black Power movement, and led the Black Muslims to attack the white race and advocate black separatism.
Stokely Carmichael
Part of the SNCC, Stokely Charmichael advocated for Black Power and a violent, confrontational strategy of demanding civil rights.
Black Panther Party
Led by Huey Newton, the Black Panthers organized poor black neighborhoods in San Francisco, acting as the neighborhood police with armed weapons against whites. Because of this, may of them were pursued and arrested by both the police and the FBI.
Urban Riots 1964-1967
Because of incidents of police brutality or rumors like it, black mobs began to incite violence, lootings, arsons and shootings in major Northern cities. The National Guard was called in to restore order, and many were killed, as well as millions of dollars of property destroyed in black neighborhoods.
President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1968
LBJ was a great champion for the underdogs, who truly supported civil rights, help for the poor and elderly, and education, but unfortunately had a great weakness in his insecurities, wanting to undo his predecessors like FDR or his rivals, the Kennedys.
Michael Harrington’s The Other America 1962
This book showed the prosperous middle class the other side of American life during the time, awakening them to the problems of the poor, including whites, blacks, Hispanics, Indians, as well as both urban and rural issues.
The War on Poverty 1964-1968
Started by LBJ, the War on Poverty was mostly led by liberals who believed that the government could help manage the boom and bust cycle by increasing/decreasing the federal budget/deficit. They also believed they could “solve the problems” of poverty, racism, and communist insurgency in Vietnam.
Economic Opportunity Act 1964
This act started The Job Corps, VISTA (Volunteers in Service to American), the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), as well as giving out rural farm loans and urban small business loans.
Election of 1964
The Republican party nominated Barry Goldwater, who was a libertarian conservative who was strongly anti-communist. But, LBJ was able to paint him as an extremist who would risk nuclear war and roll back the New Deal reforms, such as Social Security. Because of this, LBJ one in the largest landslide victory in US history.
The Great Society
This time was called “The Great Society” because of the record number of major bills passed in Congress, which totaled fifty bills. Also, the Department of Housing and Urban Development and National Endowment for Arts and Humanities were created, to better society in many ways.
Head Start 1965
This project was begun to help families who were poor and had low income, and it gave them a place for their pre-school children to be educated.
Medicare & Medicaid 1965
Medicare was begun to help pay for medical care for the elderly, while Medicaid was used to pay for medical expenses for the poor.
Immigration Act 1965
This act abolished the national origins system of the 1920’s, and increased the annual admissions to `70,000, with a 20,000 cap from a single country. This gave preferences to relatives of immigrants already in the U.S., as well as reflecting a global economic growth and political commitment to Asia with the 120,000 cap on the Americas.
Warren Court 1953-1971
The Warren Court was made into the center of liberal reform, in cases which the right to counsel was awarded even if one couldn’t afford it (Gideon v. Wainwright), the right for the accused to be told of their right to remain silent and right to counsel (Miranda v. Arizona), the disallowing of prayer in public schools (Engel v. Vitale), as well as liberalizing pornography and obscenity laws.
One person, one vote/ Baker v. Carr 1964
In this case, the SC demanded that state legislatures redistrict on regular schedule so that the votes would be equalized between the rural and urban districts.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Organized at the University of Michigan in 1963, they were a student run group who put out the Port Huron Statement.
Port Huron Statement 1962
This statement put out by the SDS advocated direct action as the best method of social reform, and called for “participatory democracy”.
New Left*
This new branch of the political spectrum consisted of idealistic middle class white college students, many of whom had volunteered to go to Mississippi during Freedom Summer.
Free Speech Movement 1964
This was started at the University of California Berkeley, and it was the impetus to student protest movements throughout the country.
The Counterculture of the 1960’s referred to the non-politically driven college students, who wished to search for alternative spiritual traditions.
Hippie communes
These communes were societies based on utopian ideals of a perfect world, only full of love and peace, and not war. Many hippies were constantly high on drugs, trying to forget and not think about the society in which they lived.
LSD & psychedelia
LSD became a very popular drug during the 1960’s, used by hippies and others participating in the counterculture, so that the drugs could liberate them.
Folk music revival 1962-1968
This was especially apparent with artists such as Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, and they rejected the commercialist topic for their music, but instead joined the civil rights movement, singing songs like “We Shall Overcome”.
Soul music
This music became extremely popular during the 1960’s, and was the first African-American music to be played on public radio.
Woodstock 1969
This was the epitome of the 1960’s, where they had a huge rock festival over a weekend, full of sex, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll. This also was the end of the counterculture movement, because there was so much advertisement that it became the society, which they were trying to get away from.