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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Political stalemate
~A lack of political action between 1877 and 1897, when neither Dem.’s or republicans had a majority in both houses, and parties worked strenuously to earn popular votes.
Bloody shirts
~A political tactic used by both parties that entailed digging up war horrors to blame on the opposing party.
Grand Army of the Republic
~An organization of former union soldiers who campaigned for pensions and support for war widows; they had more then 400,000 among their ranks, and by 1900 veterans/ families were receiving almost $157 mill. Each year, laying the way for the modern welfare system.
Spoils system
~A system used by presidents, that allowed them to give gov’t jobs to supporters, regardless of qualification.
Civil service reform
~Began in the 1880’s due to the new increased number of gov’t jobs, and sought to put only qualified applicants to work for the gov’t; civil service was reformed largely by the National Civil Service Reform League.
Pendleton Act 1883
~Established in 1883, it created a bi-partisan civil service commission to administer civil service examinations for some federal positions.
~Currency printed on green paper, not backed by Specie; it was largely debated over whether to re-print post CW, but fear of inflation won out, reducing amount printed.
Sound money
~Money, printed or otherwise, that’s backed by silver or gold currency.
Silver issue
~As sound money was printed there was demand for silver coinage; Popular opinion won out, and the US bought 4.5 mil. Ounces of silver to mint.
Inflation vs. deflation*
~Inflation= the decrease of the value of currency; deflation= increase in the value of currency; extreme cases of either are detrimental to the economy.
Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion
~During the dirty election of 1884, republicans accused democrats of supporting Rum (anti-prohibition), Romanism (Catholics /immigrants) and Rebellion (the Civil War).
~Society began by the Patrons of Husbandry, they held picnics, songs, and prayer groups, all to break the tedium of farm life, and to help escape from the hardships of a system of inequality. They also pooled money to avoid intermediaries for shipping and marketing farmed goods.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 1887
~A federal agency created in response to several Sc decisions on private vs. public property; the agency had power to regulate commerce across state boundaries and was a key step towards establishing the public right to regulate private corporations.
Southern Alliance
~A farm organization led by Macune, where members pooled money to increase resources available; they sent out newsletters and lecturers to convince people to join, and encouraged AF-AM farmers to organize also.
Colored Farmer’s Alliance
~Containing .25 million black farmers, it had ;largely the same idea as the southern alliance, but began to waver under racial persecution in the south.
National Farmer’s Alliance
~A similar farmer’s alliance in the Midwest and North of the country, that soon combined with the southern alliance to become the national farmer’s alliance and industrial union.
People’s Party/Populist Party
~A political party created by organizers in KS in 1890, the party was created to compete with the Republicans and the Democrats.
Ocala Demands
~The manifesto of the alliance (in 1890), that objected to money power of large corporations and banks, demanded reduced tariffs, abolishing national banks, regulating RR’s, coining silver freely, federal income tax, popular election of senators, and finally a sub treasury system that verged on socialism.
World’s Columbian Exposition 1893
~The first world’s fair in Chicago, IL; four days later bankruptcy soared as the depression of 1893 began.
Depression of 1893
~The depression lasted until 1897 and at one time had almost 3 million Americans unemployed; amid poverty the federal government would not provide aid as it was not in its power to provide aid to the people.
Coxey’s Army 1894
~Began by Coxey, it was an army of unemployed men, women, and children that marched from Canton to Wash. DC to offer a petition for a federal public works program; the army was met by federal troops, but no violence resulted from the confrontation.
Battle of the Standards
~A party debate of whether gold or gold/silver should be US currency; Republicans wished for gold only to build a sound financial platform and democrats wished for Gold/silver to increase the supply of money and ease the depression.
Free silver
~Movement supporting the minting of silver that was a symbolic protest of region and class in the US.
William Jennings Bryan
~A congressman from NE who supported the free silver movement and was nominated by democrats to run against McKinley In the 1896 election.
“Cross of Gold” speech
~Given by WJ Bryan in support of the free silver movement; the speech gained him the democratic nomination for the presidency.
Election of 1896
~Bryan was portrayed as a radical populist while McKinley was favorably marketed as a real, down to earth, lower-class supporting candidate; McKinley won thanks to advertising by Marcus Hanna.
President William McKinley 1896-1901
~McKinley broke the stalemate and began a republican dynasty, lasting 30 years; this new dynasty was based on Northern industry and cities.
Jim Crow politics
~Largely racial weapons, they restricted the rights of both poor blacks and poor whites in hopes of keeping rich white supremacy the norm, and keeping democrats in power in the south.
~A political weapon that kept lower class citizens from voting by requiring a literacy test and poll tax in order to vote; it was enacted to keep both poor white and poor blacks from the polls.
Ida B. Wells
~She spoke out on a national stage against lynching of AF-AM’ s in the south, and helped to found the national assoc. of colored women that supported reforms for education, housing, and healthcare.
Booker T. Washington
~He advocated work for all, so that all could vote and have a voice in the country, he also founded the Tuskegee Institute in AL in 1881, the school, taught vocational skills.
Atlanta Compromise Speech 1895
~Speech delivered by BT Washington in support of economic self-improvement and the Tuskegee Institute; it increased support by philanthropists nation-wide for the Institute.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
~A navy admiral, he wrote “the influence of sea power upon history” to convince national leaders that US needed an increase and better maintained navy to protect foreign markets, and that great sea-faring nations relied on foreign trade for wealth and might.
“white man’s burden”
~The burden of white men to bring Christianity and western views to foreign “savages’ around the world.
International social Darwinism
~Used to justify white supremacy and exploitation/ enslavement of non-white races; combined with the white mans’ burden it made conquest more humane by adding education, conversion, and government to the mix.
Seward’s Folly
~Seward’s acquisition of Alaska, though it was large, he paid only 2 cents an acre for nutrient rich land.
Hawaiian Annexation issue
~Planters in HI wished for annexation but Cleveland refused as he believed that it would be stealing territory and annexing people without their consent.
Cuban Revolt 1895
~Rebellion of Marti and followers in hopes of gaining independence form Spain; Cleveland neither supported or opposed the revolt openly.
~ American wish to expand on all borders, an idea that scared Cubans, as they fear their island would fall under American control.
“Remember the Main, to hell with Spain!”
~Anger over the DE Lome letter that put down America and showed Spain in a manipulative POV.
Teller Amendment 1898
~Passed by Congress after they recognized Cuban Independence, the amendment stated that America had no aim to annex Cuba.
“splendid little war”
~War between Spain and America for Cuban independence that was really fought for American trade, glory, and imperialism.
Spanish American War 1898
~War between Spain and America where Am. Soldier were ill prepared with heavy clothing, rotten food, and old weapons; Am had success in defeating the Spanish fleet in combat in Cuba.
Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders”
~Troops gathered by Roosevelt consisting of cowboys and polo players that went out to Cuba and resulted in the Spanish surrender.
Philippine annexation debate 1900
~Debate over whether to take control of Pr and HI and leave troops in control in Cuba to ensure America interests while not annexing.
~Famous people like Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, and Grover Cleveland believed that America could utilize the economic benefits of the Philippines without having to deal with the cost of supporting it as a colony.
Treaty of Paris 1898
~Imperialist triumphed and Spain ceded Cuba, Pr, Guam, and sold the Philippines for $20 million, to the united states.
Philippine Insurrection 1899-1902
~Rebellion under American control in the Philippines that resulted in the death of 5000 Americans, 25,000 rebels, and almost 200,000 civilians.
Open Door Policy
~An agreement between international imperial powers to keep their spheres of influence in China open to free trade with other nations; negotiated by John Hay.
Boxer Rebellion 1900
~Rebellion of Chinese rebels against foreign powers, they killed Christian missionaries and besieged foreign diplomats at their embassies, until western powers sent troops to quell the rebellion and retaliate.