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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
observations
natural phenomena

universally consistent ones = natural law
hypothesis
tentative proposal to explain observation

(revise it if experiment doesn't support it)
experiment
procedure to test hypo
model / theory
set of assumptions that explain data from multiple experiments
scientific theory
best current explanation for a phenomenon
scientific model
explains complicated phenomenon using items / pictures in place of the invisible processes that occur
scientific law
universal explanation of specific phenomena
chemistry
the study of MATTER
its PROPERTIES
the CHANGES it undergoes
& the ENERGY associated w those changes
matter
something with MASS & VOLUME
Mass
measure of the quantity of matter
weight
measure of the gravitational force between 2 objects
physical properties
substance shows by itself (not interacting w another substance)
chemical properties
substance shows these as it
interacts with
or transforms into
another substance
examples of physical properties
temperature
mass
structure (ice = crystalline)
color
taste
odor
boiling pt
freezing pt
heat capacity
hardness
conductivity
solubility
density
examples of chemical properties
getting rusty
burning
tarnishing
exploding
is inert (doesn't react w anything)
physical change
no change in type of atoms

no change in arrangement of atoms

(ice melts
sugar dissolves)
chemical change
change in type of atoms
&/or
change in arrangement of atoms

(rust
H + O = water!)
state of matter:
definite shape & volume
solid
state of matter
definite volume - no shape
liquid
state of matter
no definite volume - no shape

(assumes volume / shape of container)
gas
element
simplest type of substance

unique physical / chem properties

only ONE type of atom

can't be broken down
molecule
2+ atoms bonded together

behaves as independent unit
compound
substance of 2 + elements chemically combined

CO
mixture
2 + elements / compounds that are physically intermingled
chemical symbol
the 1 or 2 letters to name the element
substance
fixed composition -- doesn't vary from sample to sample

(pure water)
mixtures
composition varies from sample to sample

(sea water)
heterogeneous mixture
1+ visible boundaries between components
homogeneous mixture
no visible boundaries

components are mixed as individual atoms / ions / molecules

aka a SOLUTION
aqueous solution
solution in water
SI base unit for:

LENGTH
m
SI base unit for:

MASS
kg
SI base unit for:

TIME
s
SI Base unit for:

TEMP
K

(*C + 273 = *K)
density
Mass / Volume
heat
energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler one

c, C, or Joule
law of mass conservation
total mass of a substance doesn't change during a chem reaction

(reactant 1)+(reactant 2) = product

mass x = mass x
law of definite composition
a specific compound is composed of the same elements in specific fractions by mass
law of multiple proportions
elements can combine in more than one set of proportions -- 2 different compounds

(CO = carbon oxide
CO2= carbone dioxide)
dalton's atomic theory
* all matter consists of atoms

* atoms of an element can't change into an atom of another element

* atoms of a given element have the same mass and are different from atoms of all other elements

* compounds are created when atoms of different elements chemically combine in a specific ratio
dalton's atomic theory to explain conservation of mass
atoms can't be created or destroyed

atoms can't be converted into other types of atoms

atoms have a fixed mass so during a chem reaction -- they combine differently -- there is no mass change
dalton's atomic theory explaining definite composition
atoms are combined to form compounds in specific ratios

each atom has a specific mass
dalton's atomic theory explaining multiple proportions
atoms of an element have the same mass and atoms are indivisible

when different numbers of atoms of an element combine they do so in ratios of small whole numbers
atomic theory
all matter is composed of atoms

atoms of one element can't be converted into atoms of another element

all atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons ---
isotopes = different number of neutrons

compounds formed when 2 + elements chemically combine in a specific ratio
element
simplest type of substance with unique physical / chemical properties

element = only one type of atom

can't be broken down
atomic number of an element
the number of protons in an atom of that element
main group elements
the two groups on the sides
transition elements
middle group
non-metals color in table
yellow
characteristics of metals
luster
good conductors of heat / electricity
solid at room temp
characteristics of non-metals
dull in appearance

poor conductors of heat / electricity
molecule
a group of atoms chemically bonded together

* H = hydrogen atom

* H2 = hydrogen molecule

**some elements occur as molecules *H2 on table
what is chemistry?
the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
what is science?
knowledge about our natural world and theories to explain that knowledge
scientific law
a statement to summarize large amts of scientific data
theory
best current explanations for a phenomena --- always tentative
scientific model
items to represent invisible processes
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass

makes up all material things
mass
measure of the quantity of matter in an object
weight
measures force of gravity between 2 objects
physical change
an alteration in physical appearance of matter without changing chemical identity or chemical comp
chemical change
change in chemical identity
SI base unit for mass
kg
SI base unit for length
m
SI base unit for volume
m^3
1 mL = 1 cm^3
1 mL = 1 cm^3
SI base unit for time
s
k -- kilo

exp equiv
1 x 10^3

(1,000)
d -- deci
1 x 10^-1

(.1)
c -- centi
1 x 10^-2

(.01)
m -- milli
1 x 10^-3

(.001)
micro [backwards y]
1 x 10^-6

(.000 001)
n -- nano
1 x 10^-9

(.000 000 001)
p -- pica
1 x 10^-12

(.000 000 000 001)
density formula
d = m/v
C --> K
K = C + 273