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17 Cards in this Set

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Battle of Bunker Hill 1775
June 17 1775 battle between rebels and British fought on Breed’s hill and the Charleston Peninsula. Rebels forced to withdraw once they ran out of ammunition.
Second Continental Congress 1775
Wanted to determine whether independence or reconciliation offered the best way to protect the liberties of their colonies.
Olive Branch Petition 1775
Created by John Dickinson. Affirmed American loyalty to George the third and asked him to deny the policies of the ministers. Refused by King George.
Declaration of Independence 1776
Written by leading delegates in congress, to establish the united states as an independent nation from Britain.
Thomas Jefferson 1776
33 years old. Wrote a general justification of revolution and stated people’s natural rights.
Natural rights
Unalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness that had been given to the people by God.
Loyalists/Tories
One fifth of the population in America in 1775 who did not support the rebellion.
General George Washington 1776-1783
Celebrated American veteran from the seven years war, was appointed chief of the newly created continental army. Leader in battle of Yorktown→end of GB fighting in America.
Continental army vs. local militias
Continental army: 17,000 men from the local new England’s militia bans. Lacked sufficient supplies and soldiers. Most men disliked the c. army because it had low pay, strict discipline and disease. They preferred to fight in the local militia- who helped to fight when the c. army was in their neighbor hood.
Battles at Trenton & Princeton 1776
Rebel victories. GW and his 3000 men catch 1000 German soldiers at Trenton off guard → surrender. GW and his army then defeat British troops in Princeton less than a week later.
Battle of Saratoga 1777
British General John Burgoyne take 9500 troops + 2000 women and children to the Hudson Valley in a train in order to attack. Colonial General Horatio gates and his army + militia ambush the arriving British soldiers. Burgoyne retreats until Saratoga and then he surrendered his army. Turning point in the war -→ French realize that Americans could win the war → agree to loan money and weapons.
French recognition of U.S. 1778
France signs an alliance treaty with America after the battle of Saratoga. Both parties agreed to accept nothing less than independence for America and France agreed to surrender any territory captured in war/all future claims in continental North America. This led to British declaring war on France.
Valley Forge 1777
Terrible winter at Valley Forge- no enough clothes, fuel, food, medicine, shelter. Lack of supplies resulted from congressional weakness and disorganization and civilian indifference. Congress did not have the money to pay and maintain the army. Most farmers/merchants supplied British with resources rather than Americans because the British could pay “handsomely.” 2500 soldiers die at Valley Forge.
Guerilla campaigns in South 1780
Francis Marion fights guerilla campaign to retaliate against Loyalist and British aristocracy.
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
Offers freedom to any slave who escapes and joins GB. GB leaders dismiss this idea because they knew that turning slaves against their masters would not appease the southern whites.
Battle of Yorktown 1781
7800 French and 5700 continental and 3200 Virginia militia trap GB on land and the French fleet trapped GB by the sea. Cornwallis had to surrender.
Peace of Paris 1783
British recognition of American independence- agrees to boundaries of Mississippi river, 31st parallel and Canadian border.