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18 Cards in this Set

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Exodusters
-Blacks going west towards Kansas, went because they thought they could live more freely there, part of a big flood of people going west
The New South
-Grady wanted to start a ‘new South’ that was based on industry, cities and commerce. They held a lot of the resources in the U.S and they wanted to catch up with the industry of the north. The economy stayed agricultural despite hopes.
Tenant farming
-was a large part in southern agriculture after the war. Rich plantation owners still owned most of the land, so small farmers would rent plots of land from them and pay in pounds of cotton.
Birmingham steel
-Coke was available in Birmingham to make fuel. By 1890’s the TCI (Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railway Company of Birmingham) turned out iron pipe for gas, water and sewer lines that were vital to cities. However Birmingham’s iron deposits were not right to produce the kind of steel that was in demand so TCI was sold to another corporation which was controlled by the north.
Jim Crow laws
-Within 20 years after the war was over almost all southern states had made segregation laws. Jim Crow laws separated black and whites in almost all public places, except for streets and stores.
Plessey v. Ferguson 1896
-In this case the Supreme court upheld the legal segregation as long as both races were still treated equally. However they were rarely ever treated equally. The case was about segregated railroad facilities in Louisiana.
Lynching
-when a black crossed a color line they would often be punished by being tarred and feathered, whipped and beaten, and many others were lynched. In the 1890’s there were 187 lynchings a year on average (80% of these were in the south and most of the victims were black)
John Wesley Powell
-he was a geologist. He came west after the civil war and researched rivers that ran through the grand canyon. He warned Congress that to develop the west they would need more scientific planning b/c most of the area hadn’t been mapped or hadn’t had its resources identified.
Battle of the Little Big Horn/ Custer’s Last Stand 1876
-Colonel Custer led an expedition into the sacred black hills of the Sioux, and by doing so ignored the treaty of 1868. wanted to open the black hills to whites.
Dawes Severalty Act 1887
-It ended the reservation policy and wanted to draw the Indians into white society as farmers + small property owners. The land that tribes owned would be given to individuals. This act was more destructive then wars, it undermined the community that Indian life was based upon
Helen Hunt Jackson’s Century of Dishonor* 1881
-calls attention to what Jackson termed the govt’s “shameful record of broken treaties and unfulfilled promises”. This helped spark calls for the reform of the federal Indian policy
Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890
-Wovoka (Indian) told his religious followers that if they lived in love and harmony then the Indian dead would come back and help them defeat the whites. Wovoka told his followers that if they would wear the ghost shirt they couldn’t be harmed by white bullets. The army wanted to stop this b/c they feared another uprising, they killed 146 men, women and children at Wounded Knee. This was the last time whites were violent against an Indian way of life, after this the battle between whites and Indians was more about assimilation then extinction.
Ghost Dance Revival*
-foretold the disappearance of whites, and the restoration of the Indian’s lands and culture, and the resurrection of dead ancestors.
Corporate mining
-paid laborers replace the independent prospectors which worked b4.
Transcontinental Railroad 1869
-greatly helped the development of the west. B4 railroads travel in the west was slow, and building local railroads from city to city wasn’t as easy because cities were further away and the population was sparse. Building the railroad in the west was very profitable. Both Chinese and Irish workers worked on diff parts of the railroad. Made cities, and made other cities bigger.
Cattle kingdom
The railroad was very important to the cattle kingdom in the west, certain towns flourished b/c of the cattle kingdom’s growth. Cattle would roam free until the spring when cowboys would round them up
Bonanza farms
-needed larger farms in the west to get the same harvest as in the east. Bonanza farms were farms w/ more then 1000 acres. These were most common in the wheatlands and in the northern plains. Many farmers on these would hire as many as 250 laborers to work each 10,000 acres
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody & The Wild West Show
-this show portrayed the west for many. The show had rope-twirling cowboys, Indians, and Annie Oakley. Portrayed the west as a place where Indians fought the whites, six-shooters administered justice, and where romance and adventure masked the realities of conquest, exploitation and corporate control