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32 Cards in this Set

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Lincoln’s 10% Plan 1864
~As stated in his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, Lincoln stated that if 10% of qualified voters from 1860 took a loyalty oath to the union, a new state constitution could be drafted as long as it abolished slavery and provided for education of blacks.
Wade-Davis Bill 1864
~Proposed by radical unionists, Wade and Davis, the bill stated that ½ of white males take a loyalty oath to the union before a new state constitution could be drafted, it also restricted power to loyal unionists.
President Andrew Johnson 1865-1868
~Johnson, Lincoln’s VP, came into power after AL’s death; he was from NC and a known ‘champion of the people’. He was a known racist who cared not for AF-AM rights and encouraged harsh treatments for southern rebels (democrat).
Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1866
~Johnson’s reconstruction plan included: a loyalty oath taken by all white southerners, high ranking CSA members had to apply for individual pardons, states would not be re-admitted until their revised state constitutions had been passed by congress, suffrage was limited to white citizens, and finally Johnson never formally required Southerners to renounce the confederacy, he only spoke of it informally.
Black codes 1865
~Created in Southern states and built on the old slave codes, they did allow blacks to marry, hold and sell property, and sue in state courts; though they really hoped to keep blacks as low as possible, they could not serve on juries, testify against whites, work as they pleased, and MS even passed legislation barring them from buying or renting farmland and allowed that black vagrants could be arrested and rented out to farms.
Radical Republicans
~Led by Stevens, Sumner, and Wade, they wished to remake the south as the north was, but they needed support of a larger party, the moderate republicans.
Moderate Republicans
~Led by Fessenden and Trumbull, they wished for no confrontation with the president, but they did wish to keep former CSA leaders from again gaining power and to give freed slaves federal protection.
Freedmen’s Bureau 1865
~The bureau, created in ’65, provided food, clothing, medical care, abandoned lands for settling, and would have included courts to solve disputes between freed people and establish schools for black southerners, but it was vetoed by Johnson.
Johnson’s Civil Rights vetoes 1865-1866
~Johnson vetoed 2 civil rights bills, the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and a bill that would make AF-AM’s citizens; congress eventually over rode both vetoes and passed new bills and in turn the moderates joined the radicals out of exasperation with the president.
14th Amendment
~The amendment passed in June 1866, and allowed for repayment of the national war debt, prohibited repayment of the CSA war debt, defined AF-AM’s for citizenship, and gave congress power to reduce representation of any state that did not offer impartial male suffrage.
Election of 1866
~With a lack of governmental support, Johnson took a public speaking tour to build up public support, but only failed as could get Northerners to believe in southern repentance, and insulted republicans when he did not receive support.
Waving the bloody shirt
~A technique used by the republicans that revived war memories in order to build up republican support in the election.
Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1870
~Legislation passed by congress to ensure that southern states were re-admitted to the union only when they had ratified the 14th amendment and agreed to create new state constitutions; it took 4 acts to get all 10 unreconstructed states back in the union.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
~The act put the 10 states under military control, and ensured that black males were allowed to vote, but former CSA leaders were not.
40 acres & a mule
~The land and provisions proposed to give to African –American citizens to help ease their entrance into free life and citizenship.
Confiscation debate
~The debate raged between Congress of whether to give land to former slaves, but the legislation eventually failed as it would mean impinging on property rights which are very dear to Americans.
Tenure of Office Act 1867
~The act forbade Johnson to fire any cabinet members without the approval of the Senate, as an attempt to keep his from firing Stanton, the only radical left in the cabinet.
Impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson 1868
~Johnson attempted to fire Stanton and the HOR passed articles of impeachment, though their main charge was obstructing reconstruction legislation; the impeachment never took place and Johnson was acquitted as he did not commit a criminal act, just a political one.
Scalawags
~So were called white southerners who voted republican, many were unionists from northern areas of southern states who ere yeoman farmers, and were attracted to the Republican platform of rebuilding the south, restoring prosperity, extending RR’s to isolated areas, and creating more public schools.
Carpetbaggers
~Another type of white republican, these were migrants from the North to the south after the CW, and were perceived as wishing to loot and plunder the south with their carpet bags of all they owned; they made up 1/3 of offices held in the south.
Corruption in reconstructed state governments
~In the South’s attempt to catch up the North, corruption ravaged the administration as officials took bribes for RR contracts, state debts increased hugely , and finally state taxes grew quickly, so that by 1870 the tax rate 4x what it’d been in 1860.
Sharecropping
~A farming system where a black family farmed the land and then shared the crop with the white landowner in return for use of the land; the system was very exploitative and led many families to perpetual debt.
President Ulysses S. Grant 1868-1876
~A celebrated war hero, Grant was elected with a small percentage of popular vote and soon became a source of Nat’l ridicule.
15th Amendment
~The amendment forbade any to restrict voting rights on basis of race or former servitude, it did however leave loopholes that allowed AF-AM’s to be disenfranchised in the south.
Corruption scandals under Grant
~Under Grant several scandals broke out, though he was part in none himself he would not punish his friends; also party leaders became closely tied to northern industrial interests that influenced the legislation they passed.
Civil Rights Act 1875
~The act prohibited racial discrimination in public places, transportation, and juries and attempted a ban on segregation in schools that did not pass; eventually the SC struck down the provisions except the one for juries.
Panic of 1873
~An economic depression lasting 4 years moved focus from the war to economic issues and caused republicans to lose many seats due to the depression and corruption in their administration.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
~An unofficial branch of the democratic government, the Klan, and other organizations like it, broke up republican meetings, terrorized white and black republicans, assassinated republican leaders, and prevented black republicans from voting.
Mississippi Plan
~A democratic plan to use violence and intimidation to keep blacks from voting, the plan succeeded in MS where the democrats took the election due to the number of blacks that did not vote.
Election of 1876
~The election R-Hayes against D-Tilden, Tilden had a majority in popular vote but the vote was disputed due to both parties claiming several states; the gov set up a legislative vote and Hayes won 8-7.
Compromise of 1877
~IN response to democrats angry over the election, Leaders from both sides decided that troops would withdraw from the south and Hayes would not oppose new democratic state gov’t’s.
Redeemers
~As the democrats in control of the south called themselves, and the reconstruction came to the end with this period.