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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Black belt
Region in central Alabama; named after the dark, rich soil; was well suited for cotton cultivation
Deep South
Agriculture focused on cultivating cotton; consisted of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas
Upper South
Agriculture focused on cultivating tobacco, hemp, corn and wheat; consisted of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri and Arkansas
Single-crop agriculture
Practiced by many Southern farmers; rapidly wore out the soil; increased erosion; increased toxins and parasites in the soil-crops more vulnerable
Peculiar institution
Refers to slavery once it was confined to the South-peculiar institution to the rest of the country
Slaveowners who owned 20 or more slaves; 1 out of every 30 white Southerners belonged to planter families
Would be in charge of one of the several plantations belonging to large slaveowners
Slaves that were assistants to the overseer
Old South
The Southern states on the Atlantic coast that were part of the 13 colonies; tobacco and rice planters; more settled; culture present for 150 to 200 years
Old Southwest
Were the newer Southern states; were emerging from a frontier state; rawer and more unstable
On the Atlantic coast; tied to the rest of the world particularly Europe-life closer to that of English nobility than anywhere else in America
Plantation owner as the master of his crops, family and slaves; plantation owner treated his slaves like his “children” (bond between the kind master and his faithful slaves)-not in practice
Sexual relations between whites and African-Americans on plantations; many times between a master and female slaves sometimes resulting in illegitimate children-no social or legal penalties even when it was rape
Yeoman farmers
More than half of the Southern white population; owned no slaves; farmed 80 to 160 acres like Northern farmers; ≈80% owned their own land; settled almost everywhere in the South except on extremely profitable land; mostly semi-subsistent farmers-limited economic opportunity (no cheap labor, poor transportation, no access to credit); isolated; desired to join the gentry-prevented class conflict, in favor of slavery
Poor whites
Lived on land that no one else desired-remote; usually were squatters without title for the land they lived on; men hunted and fished while women did domestic work and limited farming; very difficult to escape the dire poverty they lived in; resented planters but favored slavery-symbol of status since they were free
Gang vs. task labor systems
Gang system: white overseer or black driver supervised 20 to 25 slaves; long hours of tedious labor; slaves constantly supervised; difficult to detect slackers; most common in cotton fields; Task system: each slave was given a daily assignment to complete; once the slave finished the assignment, he or she was finished for the day; slaves worked at their own pace; gave motivation to work meticulously; freed overseers from having to constantly supervise; slaves resisted when workload was increased; most common in rice fields
Nat Turner’s Rebellion 1831
Led by Nat Turner-literate, given privileges from his kind master; spontaneous-he and 6 other slaves murdered his master and his master’s family; recruited ≈70 more slaves and killed 57 white men women and children; crushed within 48 hours; Turner captured, tried, and executed; made white Southerners uneasy-Turner appeared as a model slave but his emotions did not coincidence with his obedience
Virginia Slavery Debate 1832
Western Virginians petitioned Virginian legislature for gradual emancipation; Virginian legislature refused to consider legislation ending slavery; last significant attempt of white Southerners to do something about slavery