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90 Cards in this Set

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when a syllable is given a greater amount of force in speaking than is given to another; also called a stress
in English verses, a line of iambic hexameter, usually having a caesura after the third foot
a narrative in either verse or prose in which characters, events, and in some cases setting, represent abstract concepts apart from the literal meaning of the story
the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or within them, especially in accented syllables
an indirect reference to a person, place, or thing-fictious, historical, or actual
a comparison made between two objects, situations, or ideas that share something in common but are otherwise totally different
a metrical foot consisting of three syllables, two unaccented followed by one accented
the repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses, verses, or paragraphs
a character in a story or play that opposes the protagonist
a figure of speech in which a character or narrator directly addresses an abstract concept, an inanimate object, or a person who is not present
the repetition of similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables or words; like alliteration, assonance may occur either initially or internally
a narrative song or poem passed on orally
blank verse
verse written in unthymed iambic pentameter
a light but definite pause within a line of poetry
the purification of emotions by vicarious experience, especially through drama
the methods used by an author to develop the personality of a character in a literary work
a rhetorical device in which words or phrases initially presented are restated in reverse order; for example, "do not live to eat, but eat to live"
in ancient Greek drama, a group of actors who sang and danced in unison and provided commentary on the actions of the main characters
a trite or hackneyed expression, idea, plot, character development, etc.
a decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot; a point when the action changes course and begins to resolve itself in some manner
a play written primarily to amuse the audience, usually featuring a protagonist whose fortunes take a turn for the better
comic relief
an amusing scene, incident, character, or speech introduced into a serious or tragic work to relieve tension
an elaborate, extended, and often surprising comparison made between two very dissimilar things that exhibits the author's ingenuity and cleverness; (from the Italian "concetto," meaning concept, bright idea)
concrete poem
a poem in which the visual arrangement of the letters and words suggests its meaning
a struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem; a conflict can be external or internal; there are four common types of conflicts; a person against another person, a person against nature, a person against society, and a person against him or herself
the emotional associations that surround a word as opposed to its denotation
the repetition of consonant sounds that are preceded by a different vowel
two successive lines of verse that have the same meter and in many cases rhyme
a three-syllable metrical foot consisting of a stresed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
declining action
in a narrative, action that occurs after the climax and directly before the denouement or the resolution of the plot; falling action
the literal meaning of a word--its "dictionary definition" that does not take into account any other emotions or ideas the reader may associate with it
the resolution of the plot of a literary work; the final unravelling of the complications of a plot; the word "denouement" is French for "unknotting" or "untying"
deus ex machina
a Latin term meaning "the god from the machine"; in ancient dramas, a god would often descend to the stage to rescue the protagonist from doom; thus, this term is used to refer to any power, event, person, or thing that comes in the nick of time to solve a difficulty; also can refer to providential interposition, espeically in a novel or play
variety of language spoken by a social group or spoken in a certain locality that differs from the standard speech in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammatical form
a conversation carried on between two or more people in a literary work; dialogue can serve many purposes, including characterization, advancement of the plot, development of the theme(s), and creation of mood
the author's choice of words and phrases; diction involves both connotation and denotation
didactic poetry
poetry whose purpose is to teach the reader some kind of lesson
dramatic irony
a situation in which the author and the audience share knowledge by which they can recognize that the character's actions are inappropriate or that the character's words have a significance but these things are unknown to the character-the audience or reader has knowledge that the character does not have
dramatic monologue
a lyric poem in which the speaker addresses someone whose replies are not recorded; in a dramatic monologue, the poet adopts the voice of a fictive or historical voice or some other persona
dramatic situation
a situation that drives the plot of a drama that involves the dynamic relation between a character and a goal or objective and the obstacles that intervene between the character and the objective
dynamic character
a character that changes in some way-usually for the better-during the course of a story
a lament or a sadly meditative poem, sometimes written on the occasion of a death; usually formal in language and structure and solemn or melancholy in tone
end rhyme
rhyming of words at the ends of lines of poetry
end-stopped line
a line of poetry that contains a complete thought, usually ending with a period, colon, or semicolon, and therefore ends in a full pause; the opposite of a run-on line
English or Shakespearean sonnet
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter having a rhyme scheme of abab/cdcd/efef/gg; is usually presented in a four-part structure in which a theme or idea is developed in the first three quatrains and then is brought to a conclusion in the couplet
the employment of run-on lines of poetry, whereby the meaning of the statement is carried from one line to the next without a pause
a long narrative poem describing the deeds of a great hero, great adventures, and matters of national or global significance and sometimes featuring supernatural forces
a short poem that ends in a witty or ingenious turn of thought, to which the rest of the composition is intended to lead up
a motto or quotation at the beginning of a book, poem, or chapter that usually indicates its theme
a moment of enlightenment in which the underlying truth or essential nature of something is sudenly revealed or made clear to a character
associated with letters or the writing of letters; for example, an dpistolary poem is a letter written in verse
eye rhyme
rhyme in which two or more words look the same and are spelled similarly but have different pronunciations, for example, "have" and "grave"; also called sight rhyme
in fiction, the narrative passages that establish the basic details of the story, including setting, time, and characters; in drama, scenes that introduce the main characters and introduce the dramatic situation; in some cases, the exposition will provide the audience with information on events that occurred prior to the point in time at which the work begins
falling action
in a narrative, action that occurs after the climax and directly before the denouement or the resolution of the plot
a highly comic, light-hearted drama, usually involving stock situations and characters and based on a far-fetched humorous situation
feminine ending
an unaccented syllable at the end of a line of poetry
feminine rhyme
a rhyme in which the similarity of sound is in both of the last two syllables; for example, "weary" and "dreary"
figurative of language
language used in a nonliteral way; figurative language uses figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, synecdoche, etc.
figure of speech
an expression in which words are used in a nonliteral way to achieve an effect beyond the range of ordinary language
an interruption in the continuity of a story by the portrayal of some earlier episode
flat character
a character that has a single distinguishing trait and is not developed into a whole personality
a person or thing that highlights the traits of a character by contrast
a division of verse consisting of a number of syllables, one of which has the principal stress; the basic unit of meter in poetry
the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem
framed story
a narrative device whereby a story or group of stories is presented (often told by one of the characters) within the framework of a larger narrative; Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales is an example of a framed story
free verse
poetry that does not have a fixed meter or rhyme scheme
a Japanese poetic form that is comprised of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables respectively
slant rhyme
the central character in a work of fiction
heroic couplet
two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter
high comedy
a comedy that appeals to the intellect using verbal wit, a clever plot, and visual elegance, usually having upper-class characters
a figure of speech in which exaggeration or overstatement is used for special effect
a metrical foot consisting of two syllables, the first unaccented, the second accented
iambic pentameter
poetry consisting of a line of five iambs; the most common verse line in English poetry; a meter especially familiar because it occurs in all blank verse, heroic couplets, and sonnets
the details in a work of literature that appeals to the senses of the reader, lend the work vividness, and tend to arouse an emotional response in the reader
In medias res
a Latin phrase meaning "in the middle of things"; used in reference to narratives that begin in the middle of the action
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line of poetry
the contrast between what appears to be and reality; see dramatic irony, situational irony, and verbal irony
Italian or Petrarchan sonnet
a fourteen-line poem in two parts, an initial octet (eight lines) followed by a sestet (six lines), usually having a rhyme scheme of abbaabba/cdecde; the octet and the sestet are usually played off of one another in some way
a five-line comic verse form with a rhyme scheme of aabba, with the first, second, and fifth lines in trimeter and the third and fourth in dimeter
a type of understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negation of its opposite; for example, "this is no small problem."
low comedy
comic actions based on broad physical humor, scatology, crude punning, and the argumentative behavior of ignorant and often lower-class characters
a poem that expresses an emotion or state of mind, creating a single, highly personal impression upon the reader
masculine ending
an accented syllable that ends a line of verse
masculine rhyme
a rhyme of one-syllable words (ex: "jail" and "bail" ) or of stressed final syllables (ex: "divorce" and "remorse")
a sensational nineteenth-century play that featured a suspenseful, plot-oriented drama with all-good heroes, all-bad villains, simplistic dialogue, and soaring moral conclusions
a frigure of speech that makes direct comparison (without the use of a qualifier such as "like" or "as") between two things which are basically dissimilar but share something in common
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated; for example, the use of the word "Washington" to mean the U.S. government
in literature, refers to a model in which events on a miniature scale parallel those occurring on a larger scale; for example, conflict within a family might be a microcosm of a world at war; the word literally means "small world"