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50 Cards in this Set

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Brahma
By Ralph Waldo Emerson
Spiritual oversoul. Opposites can coexist within the Brahma.
Transcendentalism
Fable
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Conversation between mountain and squirrel. Everything has a place in the world. Be respectful of others.
Transcendentalism
Each and All
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Everything together helps an individual and not one or another by itself. All create beauty and higher truth.
Transcendentalism
Nature
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Go into nature and look at stars to be alone. It is mysterious. No one owns it. Children are in awe of it. Adults never notice. 'I am a transparent eyeball.'
Transcendentalism
Self-Reliance
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Be a nonconformist. Makes fun of bigot + philanthropist. Talks about traveling to develop your character and to be happy with who you are. Good exists in you.
Transcendentalism
The Sublime Vision
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
from "The Poet" trans. appeals to everyone. Relase worldly connections. Poets work with metaphors, not with literal sense. Don't use drugs/quasi-mechanical substitutes to reach higher plain of understanding. Sense limit us.
Transcendentalism
The American Scholar
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
speech given at Harvard(?)
Be a man thinking. People aren't well rounded and aren't whole people. We work and forget to live. Do things on your own and rely on no one.
Transcendentalism
Walden
by Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalism
Walden Pond in New England. Lived there for a year to prove something to himself by living in simple terms. SIMPLIFY! Writes about himself for audience curiousity. Misfortune of land inheritence. Ant wars. Cabin building. Motherly instincts w/ partridge.
Civil Disobedience
by Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalism
Criticizes armies etc. Thoreau stood up for what he believed in and was thrown into jail for 1 day.
Transcendentalism
1830-1865
Offshoot of Romanticism
Radically humanistic philosophy which celebrates the individual's ability to creat his or her own world and to go beyond the limits of the sense + everday life + discover higher truth and insight
There Was A Child Went Forth
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
All things add to a person's life. They shape and change you. Asks what reality is.
Sparkles From the Wheel
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Vignette--verbal picture/snapshot. Simple miracles noticed by children but adults are too busy. consonance + assonance + present continuous + onomatopeia + soundplay. Poetic characterization of old man.
When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Experience life for yourself instead of just reading or hearing about it. You can't overanalyze or explain nature. Anaphora + present continuous + alliteration
Bivouac on a Mountainside
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Vignette. Short military encampment. Small camp is part of huge giant reality/universe. Assonance.
Individualism
18th century
Walt Whitman (connected it with democracy)/Emily Dickinson/Mark Twain/ William Faulkner/John Steinbeck
Anaphora
Repetition of words or phrases/beginnings and ends of lines
Free Verse
Poem without meter or scheme
Walt Whitman's Devices
Anaphora. Free verse. Consonance. Assonance. Present continuous.
Consonance
Soundplay between consonants
Assonance
Soundplay between vowels
apostrophe
Addressing a person or thing that is not immediately present
anastrophe
Reversal of word syntax
synechdoche
One part representing a whole (ie: Frank Sinatra=Old Blue Eyes)
Metonymy
Whole representing a part (opposite of synechdoche). Example in "Out Out"--"life from spilling from him" life=blood
Emily Dickinson's Devices
Dashes. Capitals. Slant rhyme and half rhyme. Rhyme schemes. Terse/tight meter.
Calvalry Crossing a Ford
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Vignette. Inspiration from Civil War. Celebrates the soldiers. Image of American Flag is final thing in poem.
A Noiseless Patient Spider
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Uses repetition/apostrophe/present continuous/free verse. Relates soul to spider's web--both spread out and catch hold of things. We aren't in a vacuum. We are connected to the world and to people.
When Lilacs Last In the Dooryard Bloom'd
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Elegy--poem written because of a person's death (eulogy is a speech)
About Abraham Lincoln. Uses Anaphora. Thrush (in italics) sings about death. Knowledge of death is personified as a companion.
I Hear America Singing
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
anaphora + synasthesia. Whitman celebrates self-reliant and working Americans contributing to society. Builder/wife/mother/father all have their own carols.
Synathesia
Mixing of the senses (ie "delicious singing" from Whitman's "I Heard America Singing")
What Is the Grass?
Walt Whitman
Individualism. Romantic but uses Realism
Section 6 of Song of Myself. Contemplates death and how life continues one. Grass is non-discriminatory and grows among all. Hadkerchief of God. Hopeful green stuff.
Hair. Child asks what is the grass.
A Narrow Fellow in the Grass
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
About a snake. Speaker is male. Enjambment/metaphor/anastrophe. Mutual respect for nature although scared of snakes.
The Soul Selects Her Own Society
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
The soul is strong + formidable + wise. She cuts off unnecessary responsibility and takes care of what needs to be done. Everyone has a soul and it is part of you yet seperate.
Much Madness Is Divinest Sense
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
slant rhyme/half rhyme etc. The majority is considered sane because everyone is alike. Individuals who are different are considered crazy yet they may be the most sane.
I Years Had Been From Home
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Coming home and being afraid of what has changed. Slant/half rhyme. Begins to open door to house and wonders if people will ask why she is here. Shuts it and runs away.
She Rose to His Requirement
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Women are oppressed when they marry. They have dreams that they give up and the husband never notices. Her potential is unmentioned and only she knows of it like pearls in the sea.
I Felt A Funeral In My Brain
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Thoguhts on Death. She's losing touch of reason and having a mental breakown. Head pounds and hears coffin open and bell sounds. Breaksthrough and comes back to earth.
Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Ways of worshipping and enjoying God's work of art. Enjambment/slant rhyme
She worships outside where everyone is welcome in what God created where he is directly as opposed to through another man in a man-made building. Experiences heaven on earth.
Faith Is A Fine Invention
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Faith is a fine invention when gentlemen can see but microscopes are prudent in an emergency.
Some people won't believe things unless they can see it and only pray to God when they desperately need something otherwise they cast it aside. They say they have faith but don't really believe.
I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Speaker remembering her death
Fly deflates dignity of scene
No divine moment at death
Double failure of vision--can't see in the mortal world and sees nothing after she dies.
Because I Could Not Stop For Death
Emily Dickinson
Individualism
Every second you get closer to death. Death comes for her in his carriage and it grows cold and she sees an underground house (her grave). Life goes quickly and we're heading for eternity.
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain
Regionalism (Part of Realism)
Phonetic spelling/local color from frog jumping contest. Man goes to ask Simon Wheeler about Rev. Leonidus W. Smiley but is told story about animal-mistreating gambler Jim Smiley that had a frog called Henry Clay that would jump when you told it to. Someone fed Henry so he couldn't jump.
Realism
1835-1930
Post Romantic period. Contains regionalism/naturalism/impressionism.
Reaction to the imaginative + idealized notions of the romantic period. Truth found in accuracy and everyday life.
Regionalism
Offshoot of Realism
Local color
Small local events that could only happen in this one place. Often contains phonetic spellings.
Naturalism
Offshoot of Realism
Scientific determinism is applied to characters/settings/theme. Our lives are not shabed by religion/supernatural but by science. During time of Darwinism. Humans viewd as animals with instinctive responses. Nature is benign and doesn't notice human emotions.
Impressionism
Offshoot of realism. Things viewed through someones eyes so not all details are present. Speakers don't describe themselves because they can't observe themselves.
Shift
Sudden change of focus from one thing to something that is totally opposite (ex: RBC--Gore to sun)
The War Prayer
Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain
Regionalism (Part of Realism)
Town excited about men going off to war and they pray for victory. Man speaks in church about how they are praying for the death of other people. Man thought odd and no one got what he was saying.
The Private History of a Campaign That Failed
Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain
Regionalism (Part of Realism)
Satire. Civil War. Troop kills one man who's not an enemy and feels awful about it. Dunlap likes to name things. Biting horse="war wounds". Eats farmers out of house and home. Narrator: "I knew more about retreating than whoever invented it"
The Outcasts of Poker Flat
Bret Harte
Realism
Stock chracters--stereotypes. Uncle Billy steals horses from group. Oakhurst=gambler who protects peoples innocence before-->suicide. Prostitutes such as Duchess. Piney and Tom eloping. Mother Shipton starves to death to give food to Piney. Town outcast them to try to purge town of sin but these are good people.