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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bayonet 202
-A long steel knife attached to the end of a gun.
desert 203
-To leave military duty without intending to return.
privateer 204
-A privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enemy’s merchant ships.
guerrilla 207
-A soldier who weakens the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.
pacifist 209
-A person morally opposed to war.
Battle of Yorktown
-The last major battle of the Revolutionary War, which resulted in the surrender of British forces in 1781.
Treaty of Paris of 1783 209 m209
-The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirming the independence of the United States and setting the boundaries of the new nation.
Wilderness Road 221
-The trail into Kentucky that woodsman Daniel Boone helped to build.
Articles of Confederation 222
-A document, adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States.
Valley Forge 202 m209
Yorktown m209
-Virginia village and site of American victory that sealed British defeat in Revolutionary War. (37 N 77 W)
republicanism 214, 245
-the belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives.
republic 222
-A government in which people elect representatives to govern for them.
New Jersey Plan 231
-A plan of government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.
Land Ordinance of 1785 223
-A law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Northwest Ordinance 223
-It described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and set conditions for settlement and settlers’ rights.
Northwest Territory 223 m226
-Territory covered by the Land Ordinance of 1785, which included land that formed the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.
Shays's Rebellion 225
-An uprising of debt ridden Massachusetts farmers in 1787.
Constitutional Convention 229
-A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution.
checks and balances 246
-The ability of each branch of government to exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches.
Virginia Plan 231
-A plan proposed by Edmund Randolph, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be based on a state’s population or wealth.
Great Compromise 232
-The Constitutional Convention’s agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house.
Three-Fifths Compromise 232
-The Constitutional Convention’s agreement to count three-fifths of a state’s slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation.
separation of powers 246
-The division of basic government roles into branches.
Antifederalist 234
-A person who opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Federalists 234
-Supporters of the Constitution.
individual right 247
-A personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the Bill of Rights.
federalism 234, 234
-a system of government where power is shared among the central (or federal) government and the states.
limited government 247
The principle that requires all U.S. citizens, including government leaders, to obey the law.
Federalist Papers 235
-A series of essays defending and explaining the Constitution.
Bill of Rights 237
-The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.
elector 249
-A voter.
enumeration 249
-An official count, such as a census.
impeachment 249
-The process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing.
pro tempore 250
-Latin phrase meaning “for the time being.”
quorum 251
-the minimum number of members that must be present for official business to take place.
revenue 252
-Income a government collects to cover expenses.
appropriation 253
-Public funds set aside for a specific purpose.
felony 253
-A serious crime.
indictment 250
-A written statement issued by a grand jury charging a person with a crime.
naturalization 253 m270
-a way to give full citizenship to person born in another country.
militia 254
-A force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community during the American Revolution. An emergency military force that is not part of the regular army.
bill of attainder 255
-A law that condemns a person without a trial in court.
ex post facto 255
-A law that would make an act a criminal offense after it was committed.
tender 255
convene 259
-To call together.
affirmation 257
-A statement declaring that something is true.
natural-born citizen 257
-A citizen born in the United States or a commonwealth of the United States or to parents who are U.S. citizens living outside the country.
misdemeanor 259
-A violation of the law.
tribunal 253
-a court
appellate 260
-Having power to review court decisions.
inferior court 260
-A court with less authority than the Supreme Court.
immunity 262
-Legal protection.
suffrage 262 m444
ratification 264
-Official approval.
unanimous consent 264
-Complete agreement.
compulsory process 267
-A required procedure.
due process of law 267
-Fair treatment under the law.
quarter 267
bail 268
-Money paid as security by arrested persons to guarantee they will return for trial.
common law 268
-A system of law developed in England, based on customs and previous court decisions.
equity 269
-A system of justice not covered under common law.
servitude 270
-A state of belonging to an owner or master.
insurrection 271
-Open revolt against a government.
reprieve 259
-A delay or cancellation of punishment.
bounty 271 m508
inoperative 274
-No longer in force.
inaugurate 293
-To swear in or induct into office in a formal ceremony.
cabinet 294
-A group of department heads who serve as the president’s chief advisers.
Federal Judiciary 294
-It helped create a court system and gave the Supreme Court six members.
tariff 296
-A tax on imported goods.
Battle of Fallen Timbers 299
-In 1794, an American army defeated 2,000 Native Americans in a clash over control of the Northwest Territory.