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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How far does the Conducting portion of the respiratory system extend?
To the end Terminal Bronchioles
Where does the Respiratory portion of the respiratory system begin?
At the Respiratory Bronchioles
What type of cartilage is found in the epiglottis?
Elastic cartilage
What type of epithelium covers the anterior surface of the epiglottis? Why?
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous - to protect against abrasian during swallowing of food.
What type of epithelium covers the posterior surface of the epiglottis? Why?
Respiratory epithelium made of Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar cells + Goblet cells.
Because normally this surface only contacts air.
What type of glands are located between the respiratory epithelium and cartilage of the larynx?
Mixed glands
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the trachea?
Respiratory epithelium
What feature is particularly prominent deep to the tracheal respiratory epithelium?
A thick pink basement membrane
What type of cartilage makes up the tracheal rings?
Hyaline
How do you tell apart Hyaline from Elastic cartilage?
Hyaline is bluer
What happens at the posterior side of the C-rings of cartilage?
They are incomplete so a band of smooth muscle connects the edges.
What is the name of the smooth muscle that completes the ring of the trachea?
Trachealis
When does the trachealis muscle contract and constrict the tracheal lumen and increase the force of airflow?
During coughing
What type of tissue is prominent in the submucosa between the tracheal epithelium and cartilage?
Mucous and seromucous glands
What pathology is chronic bronchitis associated with?
Hypertrophy of the mucous glands in the submucosa of the large conducting airways.
What is COPD?
An obstruction of airflow due to chronic bronchitis or emphesyma.
How can you control excessive secretions in a patient who is coughing up sputum from COPD?
1. Urge coughing
2. Remove secretions w/ suction
3. Give a b2-adrenergic agonist to bronchodilate and increase the rate of mucociliary movement
What does the trachea bifurcate into? What do they supply?
Right and left primary bronchi - they supply each lung.
What do the Primary bronchi branch into? What do they supply?
Secondary bronchi - they supply the lung lobes.
What do secondary bronchi branch into? - What do they supply?
Tertiary bronchi - supply bronchopulmonary segments.
What do the Tertiary bronchi branch into?
Large and small INTERSEGMENTAL BRONCHI
What do the Intersegmental bronchi branch repeatedly into?
Bronchioles and Terminal bronchioles
What are the 4 components of the Respiratory portion of the airway?
-Respiratory bronchioles
-Alveolar ducts
-Alveolar sacs
-Alveoli
What is the most distal component of the respiratory portion?
Alveoli
What is a cluster of alveoli that open into a common air space called?
Alveolar sac
What is the alveolar sac analogous to?
The landing in the farmhouse - a round foyer with several open doorways
What cell types are present in the walls of an alveolar sac?
-Type I pneumocytes
-Type II pneumocytes
-Alveolar macrophages
What type of connective tissue supports the walls of an alveolar sac?
Elastic tissue
What is the function of the elastic tissue in the alveolar sac walls?
It contributes to passive recoil during exhalation.
What is an elongated air passage in which the walls are composed of adjacent alveoli?
An alveolar duct
What is an alveolar duct analogous to?
A long hallway with open doors
What are the walls of alveolar ducts made of?
-Type I/II pneumocytes
-Reticular fibers
What is located at the opening of each alveolus lining an alveolar duct?
Smooth muscle
What is the function of the smooth muscle cells at the openings of alveolar duct alveoli?
To serve as a sphincter which regulates alveolar air movements.
What type of epithelium lines Alveolar ducts, Sacs, and Alveoli themselves?
Highly attenuated Simple Squamous Epithelium
What type of epithelium lines Respiratory bronchioles?
Cuboidal epithelium
What is in the walls of Respiratory bronchioles?
Alveoli
What is in the epithelium of all bronchioles?
Clara cells
How can Clara cells be distinguished?
They lack cilia and have domeshaped apexes with microvilli
What are some purported functions of clara cells?
-Secretion of CC16 which may protect the lung epithelium
-Degrading inhaled toxins via cytochrome P450's
-Serve as stem cells
What is the smallest structure that is a conducting airway?
A terminal bronchiole
What is a terminal bronchiole made up of?
1 or 2 smooth muscle layers that support a Cuboidal Epithelium
How are Terminal Bronchioles similar to Respiratory bronchioles? How are they different?
-Both have Clara cells
-Terminal bronchioles do NOT have alveoli
What type of epithelium do Bronchioles (primary or 2dary) have?
Respiratory epithelium
What supports the bronchioles?
Smooth muscle
What does SNS stimulation do to the smooth muscle in bronchioles, and what is the result?
SNS stimulates vasodilation so bronchodilation.
What cell lines most of the alveolar surface? What do they look like?
Type I Pneumocytes - very flat
What cells bulge from the alveolar surface into the lumen?
Type II Pneumocytes
What important structure lies within the walls of alveoli?
CAPILLARIES!
What are the large cells with logs of basophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei in alveoli?
Macrophages
What substance coats the surface of alveoli?
Surfactant
What cells are the source of surfactant?
Type II Pneumocytes
What are the morphological components of the blood-gas barrier?
-Type I Pneumos
-Fused Basement Membrane
-Capillary endothelial cells
-RBC plasma membrane
What structure is destroyed in Emphesyma?
The alveolar septa
What is the result of alveolar septal destruction?
Permanently distended air spaces
What histological structure is common to respiratory bronchioles and distal structures?
Alveoli
What are the results of loss of alveolar SA and elastic recoil in emphesyma and COPD?
-Inability to exhale so prolonged expiration
-Decreased gas exchange
A specimen of lung tissue from a patient with emphesyma would show enlarged respiratory spaces distal to terminal bronchioles and destruction of alveolar walls as a result of:
Lung overinflation
What is the level of dyspnea in COPD due to
-bronchitis
-Emphesyma
Bronchitis = mild dyspnea
Emphesyma = severe dyspnea
What are infections more common in - bronchitis or emphesyma?
Bronchitis
What is the sputum like in COPD due to bronchitis? Emphesyma?
Bronchitis = copious/purulent
Emphesyma = scanty/mucoid
Is there a decrease in elastic recoil in COPD due to bronchitis?
No
How does the heart size differ in COPD due to bronchitis vs emphesyma?
Bronchitis = large heart
Emphesyma = Small heart