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54 Cards in this Set

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How is the nervous system divided? 2 ways:
-Structurally - CNS + PNS

-Functionally - SNS + ANS
What do SNS and ANS stand for?
Somatic nerv sys
Autonomic nerv sys
What ar the 2 main cell types of nervous tissue?
-Neurons
-Neuroglia
What are neuroglia?
support cells
What are Neurons?
The structural and functional units of the nervous system
What are the componenets of a neuron?
-Cell body
0Dendrites
0Axon
What are synapses?
Points of contact between neurons, for communication.
How does communication occur between synapses?
Via neurotransmitters.
What is the CNS?
Brain + Spinal cord
What is a Nucleus?
A collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS.
What is a tract?
A bundle of axons connecting distant nuclei in the CNS.
What is Gray matter made of?
Nerve cell bodies
What is White matter made of?
Tracts.
What are the 3 layers of meninges?
-Pia mater
-Arachnoid mater
-Dura mater
What layer is innermost?
Outermost?
Inner = Pia mater
Outermost = Dura mater
Between what two layers of mater is CSF located in the brain?
Between the Pia mater and Arachnoid mater
What does the PNS consist of?
Cell bodies and nerve fibers not in the brain/spinal cord, which conduct impulses to/away from the brain.
A collection of nerve cell bodies is called
-Within the CNS
-Within the PNS
CNS: a nucleus

PNS: a ganglion
A bundle of nerve fibers that connect nuclei within the CNS is called:
A Tract
A bundle of nerve fibers, its binding connective tissue, and blood vessels serving it in the PNS is called:
A nerve
In what 7 tissues do sensory nerves end?
1. Skin
2. Fascia
3. Skeletal muscle
4. Bones
5. Joints
6. Body wall
7. Viscera
Where do Motor nerves end (4 places)
1. Skeletal muscle
2. Smooth muscle
3. Glands
4. Cardiac muscle
What are 2 ways to describe innervation?
1. In re: to direction of impulse transmission
2. In re: to area of body
How is the body divided up into areas when talking re: nerves?
1. Somatic
2. Visceral
What is somatic?
Body wall and outer lining layer of body cavities.
What term denotes outer lining layer of body cavities?
Parietal.. e.g. parietal pleural layer
What is versal?
Smooth muscle
Glands
Inner lining layer/membranes of body cavities.
So what are 4 types of nerve fibers that can be found in spinal nerves?
1. Somatic Efferent (motor control)
2. Somatic Afferent (motor sensory)
3. Visceral Efferent (organ control)
4. Visceral Afferent (organ sensory)
What are spinal nerves?
Peripheral nerves attached to the spinal cord that innervate the body wall structures located below the head, which exit the vertebral column
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
How are spinal nerves named?
Thoracic and below: Nerves exit inferior to the vertebra they're named for.
Cervical: Nerves exit ABOVE the vertebra they're named for.
What spinal nerve doesn't have a vertebra that it's named for?
C8 - there are only 7 cervical vertebrae.
What are Spinal Nerve Roots?
Pathways for nerve fibers to enter/leave the spinal cord.
How many roots are there per vertebral level?
4: 2 dorsal + 2 ventral
What type of fibers make up:
-Dorsal root pair
-Ventral root pair
Dorsal pair = Sensory

Ventral pair = Motor
Which root has a ganglion?
The dorsal
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
The location of the primary sensory neurons for te trunk and limbs.
What are the Primary rami?
the main branches of the spinal nerve.
What body area is supplied by:
-Dorsal rami
-Ventral rami
dorsal - the back

Ventral - lateral/ventral trunk and limbs.
What are the somatic components of the spinal nerve responsible for?
Innervating structures in the body wall and limbs.
How many neurons are between the CNS and end organ in the somatic system?
ONE.
Where are Somatosensory receptors located?
In Skin, muscle, fascia, joints, and outer layer of serous sacs of body cavities.
What 7 types of info do somatosensory fibers sense?
-Pain, temp, touch, pressure
-Vibration, Position, tactile discrimination.
What do somatomotor fibers innervate?
skeletal muscle, the body wall, and limbs.
What are 3 the components of the SNS?
1. Autonomic ganglia
2. Sympathetic trunk
3. Communicating rami
At what vertebral levels is the SNS origin located?
T1-L2
At what vertebral levels are the Sympathetic Ganglia located?
T1-S1 - extend down further.
Where else are sympathetic ganglia found?
-3 pairs in the cervical region
-Unpaired terminal ganglia
What is the sympathetic trunk?
Pairs of nerve cords that link the ganglia, and run parallel to the vertebral column.
What links the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves?
Communicating rami
Waht are the 2 types of communicating rami?
White
Grey
Where are white communicating rami located?
At levels T1-L2 (origin of the SNS)
Where are grey communicating rami located?
At all levels.
What is the difference between grey and white communicating rami?
-White are myelinated
-Location