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31 Cards in this Set

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Basic Chemistry
The chemistry of living and nonliving things obey the same laws.
Vitalism
Living organisms have special properties (a life force) and are governed by different laws than those that govern inanimate object.
Mechanism
A living organism is a "machine" subject to the same physical and chemical laws as inanimate objects.
atoms
What is ALL living and nonliving matter made up of?
Electrons
Nucleus
Atomic number
Atomic weight/mass
Neutral Atom
ion
Isotope
Element
Molecule
Compound
What are the structures of an atom?
Electrons
(with a negative charge) orbit the nucleus.
Nucleus
Protons have a positive charge and neutrons are uncharged.
Atomic number
total # of protons

These are the #'s that are located on the lower left.
Atomic weight/mass
Total # of protons and neutrons.

These are located on the top left.
Neutral Atom
Number of electrons = number of protons.
ion
A positively or negatively charged atom.
Isotope
Different forms of the same element. Nuclei contain the same number of protons but DIFFERENT numbers of neutrons.
Element
Matter composed of only one kind of atoms. Can't be broken down further by ordinary chemical means.
Molecule
A collection of atoms held together by chemical bonds.
properties
A molecule is the smallest part of a substance that still has the __________ of the substance. May be composed of the same or different atoms.
Compound
A substance consisting of two or more atoms of different elements and having PROPERTIES different from the elements that compose it.
Mixtures can be separated by nonchemical means.
What is the difference btwn Compounds vs. mixtures?
Solid
Liquid
Gas
What are the states of matter?
Solid
Particles (atoms & molecules) are strongly bound to one another. The only motion is vibration and rotation. Maintains a fixed volume and shape.
Liquid
Particles can flow over one another. Fixed volume but takes the shape of its container. A lot of free motion.
Gas
Particles far apart. No fixed volume or shape.
Liquid
When you add heat to a solid (ice cube), what does it turn into?
gas
When you add heat to a liquid, what happens?
Chemical bonds

electron shells
orbitals
Electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus in regions called _______ ______ or energy levels. Electron shells are composed of ________. There is no in btwn.
higher
The _______ the energy level of the electron the father away it orbits from the nucleus.
electrons
There is a maximum number of _______ each shell can contain.
2
No more than ____ electrons can occupy the same orbital at the same time.
1st shell
Max. of 2 electrons
2nd shell
Max. of 8 electrons.
chemical bonds
Atoms try to fill up their outermost shell by forming ________ _____.
Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen
What are the 3 different kinds of chemical bonds?