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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the popliteal artery a continuation of?
femoral artery
What innervates the skin covering the popliteal fossa?
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
What do the genicular arterials anastomosis supply?
Name the 5 genicular arterial anastomosis.
lateral superior, medial superior, middle, lateral inferior, medial inferior
What do the sural arteries supply?
Which 2 arteries are the only blood supply to the leg and foot?
anterior and posterior tibial arteries
What are the major branches of the popliteal artery?
sural artery, andterior and posterior tibial arteries
What does the popliteal vein ascend through?
adductor hiatus
When does the sciatic nerve divide? What nerves does it divide into?
just before entering popliteal fossa
tibial and common fibular
Which muscles does the tibial nerve supply?
gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, popliteus, and tibialis posterior muscles
The cutaneous branches of the tibial nerve form in the fossa and provide sensation via thich nerve?
sural cutaneous nerve
What does the sural nerve supply?
skin of the lateral and posterior portion of the leg, distal to the mid-calf
What forms the sural communicating nerve?
branch from the common fibular nerve
Which nerves form the sural nerve?
sural communicating nerve and sural cutaneous nerve
What are the branches of the common fibular nerve?
lateral sural cutaneous and sural communicating nerve
What forms the anterior boundary (floor) of the fossa? What is its function?
rotate the thigh w/ respect to the leg
From superficial to deep the important relationships include...
tibial nerve, popliteal vein and popliteal artery
Why is the common fibular nerve suseptible to injury?
it runs out of the fossa nerve runs out of the fossa near the head of the fibula-superficial
Why is the popliteal fossa clinically significant?
importance for ER and peripheral vascular disease
What joins the tibia and fibula?
fibrous interosseous membrane
Where can the common fibular nerve be palpated?
just below the head of the fibula
Which bone is the shin bone?
anterior border of tibia
What does the tuberosity of the tibia receive?
popliteal ligament
Does the fibula participate in forming the knee joint?
What does the lateral malleolus articulate with?
tibia and talus
What part of the leg is continuous with the fascia lata of the thigh? (around popliteal fossa)
deep or crural fascia
What are continuations of the crural fascia?
anterior and posterior intermuscular septa
What do the anterior and posterior intermuscular septa attach to?
What helps divide the leg into three muscular compartments?
anterior and posterior intermuscular septa and interosseous membrane
What is the extension of the crural fascia running from the medial border of the crural fascia to the lateral aspect of the crural fascia?
transverse intermuscular septum
What does the transverse intermuscular septum subdivide?
the posterior compartment into deep and superficial compartments, serves as point of attachment for underlying muscles
What are the muscles in the anterior crural compartment responsible for?
extension or dorsiflexion of foot
What are the boundaries of the anterior compartment?
anteriorly and laterally, the crural fascia; medially, the tibia; posteriorly and laterally, the interosseous membrane and anterior intramuscular septum
What is the chief dorsiflexor (extensor) of the foot?
tibialis anterior
Where does the tendon of the tibialis anterior insert?
base of 1st metatarsal
What is the action of the extensor digitorum longus?
extends lateral four toes and dorsiflexes foot
What is the action of the peroneus tertius?
helps raise lateral edge of the foot
Which muscle is responsible for both dorsiflexion of the foot and hyperextension of the great toe?
extensor hallucis longus
Where do tendons of the anterior muscle group pass with respect to the ankle?
anterior to ankle
Which muscles does the deep fibular nerve supply?
all the muscles of the anterior compartment plus extensor digitorum and hallucis brevis
Where are the extensor digitorum and hallucis brevis located? What is their action?
dorsal surface of foot
hyperextend the great and small phalanges
What is the action of muscles in the lateral crural compartment?
raise lateral border of foot (elevators), eversion of the foot, aids in positioning the foot during the gait
Which compartment has these boundaries-medially, fibula; anteriorly, anterior intermuscular septum; laterally, crural fascia; posteriorly, posterior intermuscular septum?
lateral crural compartment
Discuss the blood supply of the lateral crural compartment.
no artery of its own, it receives branches from the anterior tibilar artery
Which muscles are located in the anterior crural compartment?
tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum long, peroneus tertius, extensor hallucis longus
Which muscles are located in the lateral crural compartment?
peroneus longus and brevis
Where does the peroneus longus attach? brevis?
longus-inferior surface @ 1st metacarpal
brevis-5th metacarpal
Where do tendons of the lateral muscle group cross the ankle joint?
behind lateral malleolus
Which nerve supplies the lateral crural compartment?
superficial peroneal nerve
What is the action of the posterior crural compartment?
plantarflex the foot, flex the toes, and raise the medial edge of the foot (invertors)
What are the boundaries of the posterior crural compartment?
anterior formed by tibia, interosseus membrane and fibula
posterior, lateral and medial sides enclosed by crural fascia
What are the 2 smaller compartments of the posterior compartment?
deep transverse intramuscular septum
Name the superficial posterior group muscles of the leg.
gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris
Where do tendons of the superficial posterior group muscles pass with respect to the ankle?
behind ankle
What is the action of the gastrocnemius? How many joints does it cross?
flexion of the leg and plantarflexion of the foot
What is the action of the soleus? How many joints does it cross?
major plantarflexor of the foot
crosses only at ankle joint
What is the action of the plantaris?
vestigial in man
Name the deep posterior group muscles.
flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior
Where do the tendons of the deep posterior group muscles pass?
behind the medial malleolus
Does the flexor hallucis longus arise laterally or medially? Where does it insert?
arises laterally, ends medially at the 1st metatarsal
Which of the deep posterior group muscles is the deepest?
tibialis posterior
What is the action of the flexor hallucis longus?
flexes great toes, assists during toe-off (push) in gait
What is the action of the flexor digitorum longus?
flexes lateral 4 toes, plantarflexes foot
What is the action of the tibialis posterior?
principal invertor of foot, assists in positioning the foot relative to the terrain
Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment?
tibial N
What are the motor nerves of the leg?
tibial, common fibular, deep fibular and superficial fibular
Name the superficial nerves of the leg.
saphenous, common fibular, superficial fibular, sural, (and deep fibular-a little)
What is the only branch of the femoral nerve that extends beyond the thigh?
What does the saphenous nerve innervate?
medioanterior and medial surfaces of the leg and the side of the foot
What does the common fibular nerve innervate?
skin overlying upper fibula and anterolateral skin of the leg via lateral cutaneous branches
Which nerve innervates the skin on the front of the ankle and dorsum of foot?
superficial fibular N
The sural nerve contains fibers from which 2 nerves?
tibial and common fibular
What does the sural nerve innervate?
lateral and posterior skin of distal leg and lateral side of foot
In addition to supplying the anterior muscle compartment what else does the deep fibular nerve supply?
tiny patch of skin between big and second toes
How does the leg gets its blood supply?
tibial artery via the popliteal artery
When does the tibial artery divide? What are its branches?
upon passing deep to the tendinous arch of soleus
anterior and posterior tibial arteries
Name the branches of the anterior tibial artery.
posterior and anterior tibial recurrent to genicular anastomosis, muscular branches to anterior (extensor) compartment, anterior and lateral malleolar arties, dorsalis pedis
Name the branches of the posterior tubial artery.
circumflex tibial, fibular artery, midial malleolar branch, calcaneal branch, various muscular branches including sural artery and medial and lateral plantar arteries
What does the circumflex tibial supply?
genicular anastomosis
What does the fibular artery supply?
muscular arterial branches to the posterior and lateral crural compartments
Which side medial or lateral does the calcaneal branch supply to the calcaneous?
Which artery supplies the gastrocnemius?
Where do the medial and lateral plantar arteries form?
flexor retinaculum
Are deep veins always deep tot he crural fascia?
Which side of the foot and leg does the great saphenous vein drain? small saphenous?
What is the action of the tibialis anterior with respect to gait and posture? Does the muscle shorten or lengthen during this action?
used to smoothly lower sole of foot to ground just after heel-strike, used as invertor, helps position the foot when walking on uneven terrain
What is the action of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus with regards to gait? Are these muscles extensors (doriflexors)
aids the tibialis anterior in smoothing the gait at heel-strike
no, only when standing on one's heels
What is the action of the peroneus (fibularis) tertius with regards to gait?
everts the foot (raises lateral edge), helps position foot squarely on ground
What is the action of the gastrocnemius during walking? Which musclen assists it?
provides push at toe-off, raises body against gravity (tip-toes), during erect posture the body's center of mass lies in front of ankle joint-helps keep from falling forward, keeps tibia balanced on top of talus
soleus assists
When is the soleus most active?
during running or jumping
What is the action of the flexor digitorum longus when walking?
allows lateral toes to grip the in-sole of a shoe
In muscle compartment syndrome what can be affected? What is the cause?
nerve damage, tibialis proterior can be buried in the comparment on 3 of its four walls, due to muscle builup
What is Osgood-Schlatter's Disease?
exceptional exertion of quadricep muscles, undue strain on tibial tuberosity, pain and swelling can also damage epiphysial growth plate
The injury of which nerve can cause drop foot gait? Where is the common fibular nerve suseptible to injury?
common fibular nerve
close to surface posterior to lateral malleolus
Which compartments can lose motor control when the common fibular nerve is damaged? What action is the body unable to do?
anterior and lateral
dorsiflexion of foot
Severe inversion at the ankle will tear what ligament?
anterior talofibular ligament
What is the name of the fracture in which the distal fibula snaps a few cm above the inferior tibiofibular joint? Describe a severe case.
Pott's fracture
avulsion of the medial malleolus
What is housemaid's or surfer's knee? What causes it?
a form of bursitis, subcutaneous infrapatellar and superficial bursae are inflammed
excessive pressure and fricion on patella/tibial tuberosity