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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of motion do the subtarsal and transverse joints allow for?
inversion/eversion of foot
What part of the femur is a major site of muscular attachment?
trochanters
Name the thickend regions or ligaments of the hip joint.
iliofemoral, pubofemoral and ishiofemoral
What helps to deepen the socket of the hip joint? What type of cartilage covers it?
acetabular labrum
fibrocartilage
Which arteries supply the hip joint?
medial and lateral femoral circumflex, branches of obturator, superior and inferior gluteal, retinacular branches
Where are the retinacular branches located?
lie against the femoral neck
Which nerves innervatet he hip?
obturator and superior gluteal nerve
What is Trendelenburg sign?
waddling gait, one hip drops during every walking cycle
What is a positive Trendelenburg test? What type of disease may be present?
when patient is asked to stand on one foot, the side opposite droops
-disease int he gluteus medius/minimus or siatic nerve
What can artificially stabilize (raise) the pelvis in a patient with a positive Trendelenburg test?
use of a cane held in the hand of the affected side
What is the action of the knee joint?
flexion/extension and rotation between femur and tibia
What is located just superior to the medial epicondyle?
adductor tubercle
What is between the posterior projection of the medial and lateral condyles?
intercondylar fossa
What is superior to the lateral and medial femoral condyles on the posterior surface?
supracondylar lines
What is the region between the supracondylar lines?
triangular popliteal surface
What is the prominen ridge along the middle 1/3 of the posterior shaft of the femur?
linea aspera
The distal ends of the femur are much closer together than the proximal ends, what is the usefulness of this?
helps minimize side-to-side motion=less energy
What forms the front of the articular capsule of the knee?
tendons of the quadriceps and patellarligament
What forms the sides of the articular capsule of the knee joint?
aponeurotic expansions of the vastus medialis and lateralis which fan-out to form medial and lateral retinacula of the patella
Is the intercondylar fossa within the articular capsule?
yes
Name the special ligaments that help reinforce the knee.
tibial collateral and oblique popliteal ligament
What is the tibial collateral ligament a thickening of?
medial articular capsule
What helps attache the tibial collateral ligament to the articular disc?
coronary ligament
Which ligament reinforces the posterior wall of the knee joint?
oblique popliteal ligament
What is the oblique popliteal ligament a continuation of?
tendon of semimembranosus
Which ligament of the knee joint is not part of the capsule?
lateral collateral ligament
What is the synovial membrane that reaches beneath the tendon of quadriceps?
suprapatellar bursa
What does the synovial membrane of the knee joint not cover?
articular surfaces of the patella or tibia
What does the synovial membrane typically communicate with?
bursa
What is the position of the cruciate ligaments?
from intercondylar fossa of femus to intercondylar eminence of tibia
Describe the meniscus.
incomplete, flat fibrocartilage rings
Which of the meniscus is immobile? What is the reason for this?
medial meniscus
b/c of adhesions to the intercondyhlar region of tibia and attachments to articular capsule
Which vessels supply the knee joint?
genicular anastomosis
Which nerves supply the knee joint?
muscular branches of femoral nerve and saphenous nerve, as well as branches from tibial, common fibular and obturator nerves
What is the stabilizes of the knee joint directly related to?
relative positions of tibia and femus, more stable when locked
Which type of ligament restricts excess rotation?
collateral ligaments
Which ligament is particularly helpful at resisting over-extension? What is its other function?
nterior cruciate
prevents backward displacement of femus off of flat tibial articular surface
What prevents forward displacement of femur off top of tibia?
posterior cruciate ligament and popliteus muscle
What is the origin and insertion of the popliteus muscle?
o-femoral and meniscal
i-proximal posterior surface of tibia
What is the action of the popliteus muscle?
medial rotator of tibia or lateral rotator of femur, unlocks knee, prevents forward dislocation of femur
Which nerve supplies the popliteus muscle?
tibial
What is the 'unhappy triad'?
injury to anterior cruciate ligament, medial meniscus and medial collateral ligmaent
Which ligaments are less likely to be injured?
lateral collateral ligament or posterior cruciate ligament
What part of the knee joint is prone to dislocation?
lateral patellar dislocation
The weight of the body is transmitted from what to what?
tibia to talus
All tendons crossing the ankle joint also cross tarsal joints except which tendon?
calcaneal
Describe how many tendons enter the foot and what side each is on.
4 anterior, 2 lateral, 3 deep posteior
Describe the location of the superior extensor retinacula.
between anterior borders of tibia and fibula
Describe teh inferior extensor retinacula.
Y-shaped band anterior to ankle joint
What is the location of the peroneal extensor retinacula.
from lateral malleolus to cacaneus
What is the location of the flexor retinaculum of the ankle?
from medial malleolus to medial side of calcaneus
Which nerve and artery pass deep to the flexor retinaculum?
posterial tibial artery and tibial nerve
Which skeletal elements make up the ankle joint?
lateral and medial malleolus, talus and calcaneus
Why is the lateral malleolus pointed with 2 facets?
for articulation with tibia and talus
The medial surface of the lateral malleolus and the lateral surface of th emedial malleolus are covered by what type of cartilage?
hyaline
What does the medial malleolus articulate with?
talus
What does the superior surface of the talus articulate with? What does the head of the talus articulate with?
-malleoli
navicular and calcaneus
What is the tuberosity of the calcaneus an attachment site for?
Achilles tendon
What part of the calcaneus supports the talus and serves as a point of attachment for the medial collateral ligament?
sustentaculum tali
Which ligament attaches to the tubercle of the calcaneus?
calcaneofibular ligament
Which ligaments bind the fibula and tibia? Which ligament is the chief uniting element of the distal ends?
tibiofibular interosseus-chief
anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments
Why are the anterior and posterior parts of the articular capsule of the ankle joint loose?
to permit dorsiflexion an dplantarflexion
Name the intrinsic ligaments of the ankle joint.
midieal or deltoid and lateral ligaments
What does the medial ligament of the ankle joint connect? What does it prevent
medial malleolus to navicular, talus, and calcaneus
prevents abduction
What does the lateral ligament of the ankle joint prevent?
adduction
What are the 3 parts of the lateral ligament of the ankle joint?
anterior and posterior toalfibular ligaments and calcaneofibular ligament
What does the anterior talofibular ligament of the ankle joint unite?
lateral malleolus to neck of talus
What does the posterior talofibular ligament of the ankle joint unite?
lateral malleolus to lateral tubercle of talus
What does the calcaneofibular ligament of the ankle joint unite?
lateral malleolus to tubercle on calcaneus