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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 classifications of joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
What type of joints does the fibrous joints include? cartilaginous joints?
fixed and slightly movable
same
What is located between joints so the cartilage doesn't rub?
synovial fluid
What type of articular cartilage is at joints?
hyaline (long bones)
What is the articular joint capsule continuous with? What does it enclose?
continuous w/ periostea
encloses joint space
Why is there no basement membrane for the synovial membrane?
allows for rapid exchange
What lies on the loose vascular CT of the synovial folds and villi? What do these cells make?
fibroblasts-make collagen
What types of cells does the synovial fluid contain?
monocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, and some neutrophils
What does the synovial fluid provid?
nutrition, vascular supply and lubrication
What is Hilton's Law?
a joint will be innervated by the same nerves that innervate the attached muscles and overlying skin. In addition to fibers carrying proprioceptive information there are abundant pain fibers int eh joint.
Where is the vascular supply to joints located?
articular capsule and synovial membrane
What is the definition of arthritis?
any inflammatory process in a joint
What happens to the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis?
synovium is stimulated to produce excess fulid and fibrin which accumulates on the synovial surface
What is a pannus?
granulation tissue that grows across the joint
When a joint is immobolized what can happen to the hypertrophic cartilages?
may fuse and undergo ossification to form one 'welded' bone (ankylosis)
What can form when articular cartilage breaks down?
pannus
The spread of inflammation in a growing pannus can lead to what?
destruction of bone leading to bone deformity
What can cause impairment of joint mobility?
hypertrophy and hyperplasia of articular cartilage, producing and irregular surface
Which joints are more likely to be affected in rheumatoid arthritis?
distal joints
What type of disease is rheumatoid arthritis?
autoimmune
What are 2 markers for rheumatoid arthritis?
presence of rheumatoid factor and sero-positive
What is osteoarthritis?
degenerative disease most often caused by excessive wear and tear
What is the first step of osteoarthritis?
destruction of the articular cartilage beginning w/ clefts and splits due to swelling
What happens after destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis?
disruption and collapse of chondrocytes near the surface
What is lost in the superficial layer? What else is worn away?
proteoglycans
articular cartilage-exposing bone
When bony surfaces rub against one another what can happen?
small cysts and irregular outgrowths of bone form
What can cause inflammation in osteoarthritis?
bone and cartilage debris
What is Charcot's joints a complication of?
diabetes mellitus in both type I and II, esp in patients w/ peripheral neuropathy
What other diseases may cause Charcot's joints?
alcoholism, leprosy, syphilis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Diabetic neuropathy involves which part of the nervous system? What does it regulate?
ANS
vascular flow in the limbs
What can occur as peripheral neurophathy progresses in the long-standin diabetic?
loss of proprioception
What can occur b/c of loss of proprioception? Why does this happen?
micro-fractures, calcium deposits and anormal bone growth b/c the bones don't adjust to normal forces and changes in position
Where is the most common site of Charcot's joints? Why?
lower extremities, b/c of weight bearing function
When does Charcot's joints present?
usually 10 years after being diabectic
What are the three stages of Charcot's joints?
fragmentation or destruction
coalescence
consolidation/reconstruction
Which stage of Charcot's joints can be confused w/ osteoarthritis or infection?
fragmentation or destruction
During which stage does the acute destructive process slow? What else happens in this stage?
coalescence
fractures partially heal, swelling reduced
What happens during the consolidation or reconstruction phase of Charcot's joints?
healing, but joints are often deformed
What are the treatments for Charcot's joints?
get heat and swelling under control
support/stabilize affected foot to minimize deformity
minimize weight-bearing