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42 Cards in this Set

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Intrinsic pathway activates:
Kininogen system leads to bradykinin
B2-Integrins:
neutrophil (CD11:18) adhesion molecules, activated by C5a and LTB4
Delayed separation umbilical cord:
selectin or CD11a:CD18 deficiency
Opsonins:
lgG and C3b
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia:
opsonization defect
Chronic granulomatous disease:
absent NADPH oxidase and respiratory burst
MPO deficiency:
normal respiratory burst, b/c have NADPH oxidase, cant kill bacteria b/c can't make bleach
Thromboxane A2:
Sources: Platelets, converted from PGH2 by thromboxane synthase. Functions: Vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, bronchoconstriction.
PGH2:
major precursor of PGs and thromboxanes
PGE2:
vasodilation, pain, fever
PGI2:
vasodilation; inhibition of platelet aggregation
LTB4:
chemotaxis and activation of neutrophil adhesion molecules
LTC4, LTD4, LTE4:
vasoconstriction, increased vessel permeability, bronchoconstriction
Bradykinin:
Source: product of kinin system activation by activated factor XII. Functions: vasodilation, increased vessel permeability, pain, bronchoconstriction
IL-1 (Cytokines):
Function: initiate PGE2 synthesis in anterior hypothalamus leading to production of fever, activate endothelial cell adhesion molecules, increase liver synthesis of acute-phase reactants, increase release of neutrophilis from bone marrow
Histamine:
Source: Mast cells (primary cell), platelets, enterochromaffin cells. Function: Vasodilation, increased vessel permeability.
Nitric Oxide (NO):
Source: Macrophages, endothelial cells, Free radical gas released during conversion of arginine to citrulline by NO synthase. Function: Vasodilation, bactericidal, big in shock.
Serotonin:
Source: Mast cells, platelets (AA Tryptophan precursor). Functions: Vasodilation, increased vessel permeability.
Fibronectin:
key adhesion glycoprotein in ECM, Chemotactic factor attracts fibroblasts and endoth cells
Angiogenesis:
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are important in Angiogenesis
Cell types in a granuloma:
macrophages and CD4 helper T cells
Epithelioid cells:
macrophages activated by y-interferon from CD4 TH cells (pg 32).
Growth Factors in tissue repair:
Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), Basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF), Epidermal Growth factor (EGF), Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF):
Stimulates angiogenesis
Basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF):
Stimulates angiogenesis
Epidermal growth factor (EGF):
Stimulates keratinocyte migration, Stimulates granulation tissue formation
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF):
Stimulates proliferation of smooth muscle, fibroblasts, endothelial cells.
Hormones involved in tissue repair:
Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
Insulin Growth factor-1 (IGF-1):
Stimulates synthesis of collagen, Promotes keratinocyte migration
Genes controlling G1 to S phase:
RB and TP53 suppressor genes
BAX gene:
activation by TP53 initiates apoptosis
Laminin:
key adhesion glycoprotein in basement membrane
Lysyl oxidase:
Cross-links a-chains; cofactor, vit. C and Cu are cofactors
EDS:
defects in type I and III collagen
Zinc:
cofactor in collagenase
Glucocorticoids:
prevent scar formation
Keloids:
excess type III collagen, converts to type I (cell turnover) leads to squamos cell carcinoma
Brain injury:
proliferation of astrocytes and microglial cells
Corticosteroid effect in blood:
increase neutrophils; decrease lymphocytes and eosinophils
Increase ESR:
increase fibrinogen, anemia
CRP:
marker of necrosis and disease activity
Polyclonal gammopathy:
sign of chronic inflammation; increase IgG