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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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immutability/mutability
Ferdinand de Saussure, two contradictory qualities of any language
The linguist David Crystal estimates that half of the world's _____-plus languages, are in danger of _______
5000, extinction
Linguistic change involves ____, linguistic continuity involves _____
continuity, change
What is borrowing?
A process whereby linguistic items - frequently words - are copied from one language to another.
When did the Jutes, the Angles, the Saxons, the Frisians, the Franks unite under a single name? And what was this name?
Englisc, by the 8th century
The birth of English involved continuity and diversity
What is comparative philology/philology?
It was concerned with examining correspondences and similarities in the vocabularies, grammars, and pronunciation patterns of different languages
What was the aim of comparative philology?
1) To find important connections between many of the languages of Europe and south-western Asia
2) To testify that a major reason for these similarities was a common, single source for all these languages
Describe the Old English period
It stretches from the mid-fifth century AD to not long after the Norman Conquest of England (1066 AD)
How do you explain that the word mouse appears in so many languages?
All the different form had a single, common source, from which the various form have gradually, progressively evolved.
What is a cognate?
They are words that are 'born' together, like the mouse debacle
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) / Indo-European
It is a hypothetical language, a construct based on the evidence provided by its descendent languages, and its descendent languages are described as members of 'the Indo-European family'
There are 17 - 30 ____ ____
language families
Who came up with the family tree model?
August Schleicher in 1863
What is the centum-satem division about?
In the nineteenth century, a broad division between western and eastern Indo-European languages was made. Centum is the Latin word for 'hundred', satem is the Avestan (an ancient Iranian language) word for 'hundred'. It was found that the Indo-European languages could be split into two broad groups: a western group with k (centum) in its 'hundred' words and an eastern group with an s-type sound. It is thought that the original PIE-form is the k and the s is a later development which occurred in the east.
Grimm's Law
Named after its formulator Jacob Grimm, 1822.

1) It gave a systematic account of correspondences between certain consonants in the Germanic languages and in other Indo-European languages. In Sanskrit, Greek and Latin a word began with p-sound, the Germanic languages have an f-sound. Latin: pater, piscis, English; father and fish.

2) Explained a further regular change to 'hundred'-word in Germanic, whereby k became a h-type sound (centum - hundred)

Grimm's Law described altogether nine sets of such correspondences.
Verner's Law
By Karl Verner. He published an explanation of apparent exceptions to Grimm's Law, at the same time suggesting that sound-laws were exceptionless: the exceptions were merely the result of an incomplete law..
Neogrammarians
The theory of exceptionless sound-laws is associated especially with a group of German philologists who became known as the neogrammarians.
Grimm's Law + Verner's Law = ?
the First Germanic Consonant Shift
Linguistic palaeontology
An approach that grew out of comparative philology and which makes explicit statements about the external history of Indo-European languages - by drawing out cultural information from the linguistic materials.
Glottochronology also known as _____ is about...
Lexicostatistics

...an approach, to dating PIE a kind of 'linguistic version of radiocarbon dating'.
What did Johannes Schmidt develop in 1872?
The Wave Model, it presents linguistic innovations as ripples or waves radiating outwards from a central region to peripheries
Vitaly Shevoroshkin developed the idea of _____ superfamily
It is claimed that Indo-European and several other language families have evolved out of it.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza came up with the _____ superfamily
Eurasiatic, dating from 20,000 and 10,000 years ago
Phoneme
is the term used by linguistics to refer to the chief sound-units in the sound-system of a language
the Middle English period
the Conquest --> until the late 15th century
Received Pronunciation
the standard accent of British English
Diphthong
a vowel phoneme consisting of two elements
the Great Vowel Shift
A name given by Otto Jespersen, originally in 1909, to a series of sound changes which thoroughly altered the seven long vowels of Middle English
When did the Great Vowel Shift happen?
It took place during the 15th-17th centuries, and it is one of the factors that has led linguists to identify an Early Modern English period in the history of the language
When was Early Modern English period?
1500-1800
The completion of the Great Vowel Shift marks the beginning of the ______ ____ ____
Modern English Period
Why did the Great Vowel Shift happen?
1) Internal part, each vowel became higher, with two vowels that were already high becoming diphthongs (and at a later point two more became diphthongs)

2) External explanation. The Shift was centred in London English, and the sociolinguistic view is that it began as a case of change from below. The interpretation of the details varies, but on suggestion is that a socially stigmatized merging of the vowels in the meat and meet group characteristic of lower-class London-area accents eventually became socially prestigious set of usages, which then set the train to the structural adjustments in the long vowel system.
Vowel height
Depends on how high is the tongue in the mouth
How did the changes happen in vowel height in the Great Vowel Shift?
1) Changes at the top, which then pulled up the articulations of lower vowels

Or
2) Changes at the bottom, pushed up or diphthongized the higher vowels
or
3) Changes in the middle which had both a push and a pull effect
Sociolinguistics
A branch of linguistics in which language is studied in its social context, in connection with factors such as the sex, age, occupation, education and social class of speakers
the Northern Cities Shift
Assessed by William Labov. In the northern United States. White urban communities. Changes in vowels.
Change from below
Linguistic innovation that occurs below the level of social consciousness
a chain shift
a set of phonological movements
neologisms
new words
word-formation
to create new words from existing resources of the language
compound
Independent words are joined without losing any of their parts
as in grasshopper
Blending
a variant of compounding, involves the loss of parts of the constituents
brunch <--- breakfast and lunch
Derivation
new words are formed by using prefixes to an existing form
Abbreviation
the shortening of a word or words

bus from omnibus
Back-formation
the reverse of derivation, a word is assumed to have derived from an earlier basic form when this has not actually been the case, and a new form is created
amelioration
a word with a 'negative' sense develops a 'positive' sense
deterioration
the reverse of amelioration, garble (cleanse)