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24 Cards in this Set

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Introspection (Gathering info)
one way to gather info about personality is to look at your owen experience, self-reflection, self-attention
Danger= your consciousness has a relationship wiht your memories since their yours, they can be distorted. Ex. your parents tell you "youre the best writer in the whole world" their whole life, they would believe that--halo effect. Ex. American idol- the bad ppl think theyre good
Observations of others (Gathering info)
you cant reallyyy get inside another person’s head so you don’t know whats going on up in there which can lead to misinterpretation. Ex. oh i know whats going to happen with that dude bc thats what i would do. Our attitudes toward other ppl biases us to what we think they would do
Case studies (formal methods of gathering info)
Henry Murray. In depth study of one person. Entails long period of observation, unstructured interviews
-youll do it when you think a person has peronality disorder or even a normal cool dude
-repeat to confirm or disfirm an impression
Advantages: in-depth knowledge, info pertains to normal life
Disadvantages: Very limited generalizability
Experience Sampling (formal methods of gathering info)
AKA diary studies. basically over an extended pd of time person being studied has to report on some aspect of his/her current experience. It can be signaled by a page, can be as often as a couple times a day or a few like day and night
Advantages of Experience sampling
People do not have to remember far back in time (altering judgement)
Its possible to search w/i info for patterns of behavior w/i a given person across many situations -idiographic method bc focus is on indv.
Generability
-how widely a conclusion can be applied, to be generalizable it must be base on many ppl not 1 or 2
-should study ppl from many ages, from all walks of life, from all cultures
-unfortunately most research in US is not done this way
Variable
dimension along which people differ, there must be at least two values or levels on that dimension Ex. Sex has two values, male femail. Self esteem has infinite amnt of values (very low, very high)
Correlational Method
A relationship in which the values of two variables go together in a meaningful way.
Positive Correlation
studying and grades, high and high variables
Negative Correlation
tiger woods low score gives a high income
Does not cause causation*
Statistical significance
Suggests a relationship is unlikely to be the result of chance
real occurrence, rather than a random one
Clinical or practical significance
indicates that the observed relationship has meaningful, real world consequences
Advantages of Correlational Method
-gives quantitative index
-quick and efficient
-often only method avail (for practical, ethical reasons)
Limitation of Correlation
Can not tell us WHY to thinks go together (causality), directionality problem, third variable problem
Search for Causality: Experimental Research
demonstrates cause and effect, allows ability to rule out third variable explanations

CAN INFER CAUSALITY
Experimental drawback
Sometimes uncertain which aspect of manipulation was important.
Some variables cant be manipulated
• Experiments on people usually involve events of short duration, while correlational lets you exame events that take place over long periods (even decades)
Correlational study
examines variation due to naturally occurring characteristics in groups that exist naturally
Correlational advantage
lets you get info about events in which experimental would be unethical. Ex. how being raised by divorced parents affects ppls personality
Good way to understand personality
is to look at naturally occurring differences between people
Confounds
variables that can not be controlled
Multifactor studies objective:
-to examine the combined effect (interaction) of two or more variables on an outcome variable
Ex. Motivation and parental support effect GPA
- two or more variables are varied separately, creating all combinations of the various levels of the predictor variables
Experimental personality research
combines experimental procedures and indv. differences
Multifator studies effects
make general statement about each individual variables (ex. class size, sociability and the dependent (anxiety)
Multifactor interactions
When complexity occurs, qualify the effect of one variable on the dependent measure by taking the other variable into account