Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Agricultural advances
heavier plow
collar harness not ox yoke b/c horses faster but more expensive
crop rotation
more food caused
expansion of trade
pop. growth
growth of towns
creative thought
nobles & freeholders moved to new areas & claered forests & drained swamps
trade routes
sea & river
reapired roman roads
N France & S Belgium
textile prodution
center of trade on N Euro coast
Hanseatic league
towns along Baltic
controlled E Euro & N Atlantic trade
Trade fairs
feudal lords: fees on merchants, taxes on goods, protected merchants
Champagne: most famouse, almost exact center of W Euro, entertainment
money economy
barter system - impractical
economy based on money
money changers
mainly Jews or Italians
1st bankers
excahngedd money & determined value of currencies
prcedures for deposites, loans, & transfering funds over distance
name of bank
banca = bench - sat on @ fairs
feudal lords economic trouble
dependent on banks to pay expenses
raised taxes, sold lands, demanded money instead of feudal services
serfs bought freedom
-> feudalism declined
walled towns
b/c bandits
@ 1st wood
then stone
inside towns
narrow, winding streets
noisy, smelly
wood & thatch - fire hazard
shopes lined street - owners lived above
no sanitation
no sanitation
garbage & sewage
worst - black death
merchant guilds
maintain monopoly of local market
restricted trade by foreigners
uniform pricing
craft guilds
regulated prices, wages, employment
standards of quality
no competition
to be master
apprentice - worked w/out pay
journeyman - paid but had to work under master
submit masterpiece - reviewed by guild
had own shop
guild benefits
medical help
unemployment relief
sponsored social & religious events
name of town
Germany: burghers
France: bourgeoisie
England: bugesses
@ 1st - someone living in a town
than - someone who made money from money economy
more political power of towns
town councils
kings depended on for loans
important officials became kings advisors
conflict between berghers & feudal lords
towns didn't fit in feudalism
rented taxes & service
wanted own courts & laws
feudals enforced stuff strictly
towns had money to defeat feudals
groups in Italian towns
ended power of feudal lords
made Italian towns independent city-states
gave right to control own affairs
all citizens freemen
citizens free of labor services
paid taxes in money
no lored could seize property
(some towns satyed feudal)
education before
controled by clergy
monastic or cathedral schools
only educated boys if going into church
educating laymen dangerous
universities started b/c
towns need officials
courts needed lawyers
students & teachers met outside of monasteries
guild of scholars
books scarse - teachers read texts & disgussed while students took notes
classes met regualrly
rules for obligation between students & teachers
to be teacher - student pass exams to get degree
as violent as times
new learning controversy
church thought threateded chritian teaching
reason ininterpreting chritian doctrine
reconcile church & philosophy
all knowledge can but put together in a whole
Peter Abelard
taught thoelogy in Paris
book - Sic et Non (Yes & No)
curch officals disaprooved
condemed for heresy
hid @ Cluny
Thomas Aquinias
Dominican friar
Summa Theologica - encyclopedia of christian theology
reason = God's gift so couldn't be in conflict
cathic church accepted & promoted
anglo-saxon epic
handed down by oral tradition
written by unknown poet
chansons de geste
"songs of high deeds"
french epics
courage of feudal warriors
ex: Song of Roland - (Charlemange & Tours)
traveling poet-musicions
love & feats of knights
help difine ideal of chivalric knight
Hildegard of Bingen
German abess
known for spiritual wisdom
wrote about religion, science, medicine
composed music
Herrad of Landsberg
assisted by nuns
"Garden of Delights" - encyclopedia of world history
Christine de Pisan
french nobewoman
wrote love poems
language of everyday speech
Dante Aligheri
"The Devine Comedy"
gourny - hell -> pergatory -> heaven
famouse people - where met them - commented on them
Geoffrey Chaucer
"The Canterbury Tales"
pilgrims on journey to Thomas Becket's shrine in Canterbury
romanesque style
thick walls
close-set collumns
heavy, curved arches
small windows
Gothic stlyle
flying butresses - took wight of ceiling, allowed walls to be thinner, space for stained glass windows
pointed arches of narrow stone ribs off tall pillars - higher ceilings & more open interiors
How Hunderd Yrs War started
England wanted Normandy
France wanted to unite all lands
war broke out when Edward III claimed french throne
Joan of Arc
Jeanne D'Arc
from Domremy
17-yr-old illiterate village girl
walked thru enemy lines to convinced french king Charles VII to let her lead army
said saints were talking to her - Margaret & Catherine
inspired victory of Orleans (siege)
"The Maid"
captured by Burgundians
-> given to English
-> given to Church
no help from Charles
tried & burned for heretic & witch
courege inspired french to drive English out
trial after death - said innocent
made saint
prosperous area
ruled by Charles the Bold - wanted to make independent
Louis wanted - didn't fight for openly
incoureged quarrels between burgundy & neighboring swiss
Charled died in battle w/ swiss
burgudy divided between Charles' daughter & french king
Italin merchant cities
in Venice, Genoa, Pisa
palgue symptoms
swelling in joints
plague carried by
fleas on rats
plague from
C Asia
what people thought caused the plague
popular - scourge from god
learned - alignment of the planets
medical measures against plague
French - don't eat meat, exercize, bathe
Italian - think good thoughts
many thought came by air (b/c towns smelled) - ferfume, curch bells(diterb air)
moved away from infected towns
why people thought would go to hell if died during plague
priests dead - no confession of last rights
Pope Clement VI & Avinon
blessed river so could sink corpses in - not enough room or time to bury
scapegoat for plague
Jews - massacred & driven from homes
during Plague
cleanse from sin
wanderd from town to town wipping selves
condemed by Pope Clement VI
attention & mass hysteria
Killed Jews
attacked clergy who opposed
clergy reation to plague
some diserted
some exploited
some were heroic
Art of Black Death
Danse Macabre - skeletons in everyday life
Economic affects of Plague
pop. fell
trade declined
prices rose
farmland abandoned
workers scrce -> better wages
nobes resedted demands for better wages -> peasant reevolt
end of manorialsm
official church answers to all Qs
Galileo - condemed to death as heretic
Giovanni Bocaccio
The Decameran
"10 days"
black death in Florence
people fled to villa
told stories
causes of Hundred Yrs War
# Charles IV died w/out heir
Edward III climed French throne b/c was grandson of Philip IV
French close to Philip VI - edward refused to pay homage to
# Edward seizes Aquitaine & Gascony
# both wanted control of Flanders
count of Flanders French vassel
weavers made money w/ England
Edward I & son Black Prince (E)
Philip VI (F)
English out #ed - French believed were invincible
Genovese crossbowmen (F)
English longbow - infantry - French never faced
(F) chivaric
archers aimed fro horses - fell & blocked way, kights vulnerable if dismounted
English men-@-arms finished it w/ longknives
1st portable firearms
captured French king John - ransomed
french gave up Aquitaine
Henry V (E)
E out#ed
archers won
end of chivalric warfare
Treaty before Joan of Arc
Henry V inherit throen after Charles VI died
Charles - weak, crazy
disiherited Charles VII - dauphin
effects of HYW
England - Parliament more powerful
France - land devisated, confidant, monarch more powerful
Both - Nationalism, Revolutionized warfare, decline of feudalism
War of the Roses
Lancaster - red
York - white
Henry Tudor (Lancaster) becam Henry VII
begining of Tudoe dynasty
Great Schism
Pope Boniface VIII of Italy tried to exert authority over Philip IV
Philip persuaded college of cardinals to elect fench Pope
-> Clement IV - went to Avinon - babylonian captivity
criticized b/c lived like king - weakened church
Gregory XI died whil in Rome - mob wanted itlain Pope - Urban VI
frnch objectd - other pope
Council of Lonstance - all resigned & new pope
selling of church positions
John Wycliffe
jesus not pope head of church
translated buble
offended by worldliness
Jan Hus
U of Prague
translated bible into slavic language
burned @ stake for heretic
crusades against
church forced to give rights in return for loyalty