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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most people in Byz. were
greek
Const. near centers of
early Christianity & trade
Const. on what strait
Bosporus
Bosporus connects
Sea of marmara & black sea
protechtion of Const.
water on 3 sides, triple walls, chain accross harbor
why Byz. called "New Rome"
- thought as heir to rome's power & traditions
- Emperors & wealthy families roman & spoke latin
Greek influence in Byz.
most part of greece
people spoke greek & stressed Greek heritage
later - emperors & officials spoke Greek
religious sholars use greek
hight of Byz emperor during rule of
Justinian
Justinian was from
Macedonia
How justinian came to Const
when young man came to help uncle Justin I
Justinian's personality
hard working & enthus. for knowledge
Jusitnian's wife
Theodora
Theodora was (description)
beautiful, intelegent, ambitious
objections to theodora
was an actriss - profession in low esteem
Theodora active in gov
rewarded friends w/ positions & used dismissal to punish enimies
Theodra & women's rights
persuaded Justinian to make decree - wife had right to own land equal to what brought to marriage
Theodra & women's rights
persuaded Justinian to make decree - wife had right to own land equal to what brought to marriage
gave widowa income to support children
Theodra & women's rights
persuaded Justinian to make decree - wife had right to own land equal to what brought to marriage
gave widow income to support children
how theodora saved throne
Nica rebellion - advisors wanted J to flee - T persuaded to stay - crushed rebellion - ruled w/out challenge
Justinian & persians
threatened to conquer E provinces - threw back - J pay tribute for peace
Justinian military legacy
reconquered roman lands
Justinian's general
Belisarius
cost of justinian's reconquests
exauseted resources -> couldn't defend against Persians
didn't last
Justinian's code - commision was
10 scholars w/ legal expert (Tribonian)
justinian code was basis for
most european legal systems
Hagia Sophia means
"holy wisdom"
Hagia Sophia is in
Const.
connection - church & state - const
emperor - God's rep on Earth
emperor & emprees crownd by patriarch
" took oath to defend Christianity
emperors:
- appointed church officials
- defined style of worship
- used wealth of church for gov.
justinian & church
strengthened control of church
interviended in church disputes
tried to unify empir under 1 belief
lead to persecutin of of jews and other christians
church officials are
clergy
church members not clergy
laity
religious images
icons
John of Damascus
Byz. theologan - wrote article defending icons
Iconoclast means
image breaker
objections to icons
prohibited in 10 commandments
defence of icons
aided worship - helped focus thoughts
who ordered all icons removed form churches
Leo III
church leaders resisted/supported icons
resisted
icon supported by
the pope
council that approved icons
@ Nicaea
empress that allowed icons
Irene
final decision on icons
had to be 2D
biggest issue that lead to scism
pope & patriarch both claimed supreme authority
how lombard invasion affected church
Byz. emperor didn't protect pope - turned to Fraks - made Frankish leader (Charlemange) emperor
Frankish leader
Charlemange
Marriage in Byz
divorce difficult
Church genneraly forbade remarriage
women in Byz
partly secluded but some were well edu. & influential
Byz economy based on
agricultre
major Byz industry
silk weaving
how Byz got silkworms
monks stole them ad hid them in hollow bamboo
subjects of most Byz art
religious
3 Byz art forms
icons
mosaic
illuminated manuscript
illuminated manuscript is
decorated books w/ fancy lettering & pictures in the margins
gov. supported Byz U
U of Const.
U of Const.
trained scholars & lawyers for gov.
lower edu.
some tutors - especially daughters b/c couldn't go to academies
Byz. lit
religious & copy writingd of greeks & romans -> helped spread knowledge
monesteries started in
Byz.
monasteries did
helped poor
ran hospitals
sent missionaries
most sucesful missionaries
bros Cyril & Methodius
Cyrillic
Cyril & Methodius made alphabet to convert slavic people
affect of Byz reduced to only greek lands
unified empire - 1 language & religion
Byz & Venice
after Justininan died - agreed to help Byz regain lands in return fro trading privliges - failed - Byz. lost control of trade - weakened economy
who defeated byz @ battle of manzikert
Seljuk Turks - Islamic from C asia
battle where Byz defeated by Seljuk Turks
Manzikert
after battel of Manzikert
Byz. emperor asked pope to help defend christianity - expiditions more interensted in taking over Palestine
after 4th crusade
Latin Empire in Const. -> disrupted trade
big plane in Russia
steppe
Russian soil
rich, black
russian climate & effect
harsh -> farming hard, crop failiers common
little rain, to far inland for ocean breezes
buried in snow in winter
E slav early villages
of related families; clans
E slavs - clear land
burned forests - scattered ash on soil -> fertile
Steppe - "sea of flame"
slavic houses
knothced logs - no nails, many w/ decorated wood gables & window frames
R influenced slavs
used for transport & trade -> trading towns along banks - route from Balitc(N) - Black(S) seas
Vikings were
warriers & traders from scandinavia
Primary Chronicle
collection of E slavic history & tales
Slavs & vikings
people of novgorod asked viking for protection
viking leader
Rurik
who conquered Kiev
Prince Oleg - Rurick's succesor
why Kiev prospered
trade on Dnieper
how Kiev gained power
Oleg conqueren other towns on Dnieper
Region of slavic territories called
Kievan Rus
rulars of Kiev
Grand Princes
treaty - Kiev & Const.
Kiev wsa raiding Const. - ended w/ treaty - established trade
trritories ruled by princes
principalities
Kievan taxes
other princes paid taxes to Grand prince in Kiev - support court & army
duties of princes
administer justice
defend frontier
assisted princes
council of boyars
wealthy landowners in Russia
boyars
russian assemblies
rep all free male citizens
handled daily affairs
power to accept or remove princes
power in NE
prince
SE power
boyars
Novgorod & few N power
Assemblies
close to rep gov
later princes limited power
Early Russian religion
nature spirits & ancestors
polytheistc
images of deities on high ground outside villages
1st russin noble to convert to christianity
Olga
Vladimir was Olga's...
grandson
rular that converted russinas to christianity
Vladimir I
mass baptism
Vladimir I - in Dnieper
effects of conversion to christinity
brought Byz culture to Kievan Rus
Art - icons/mosaics/illuminated manuscripts
Cyrillic
domes
monasteries

church split - separated from W
Vladimir military
skilled warrior
defended E frontier
expanded W borders
Yaroslav is Vladimir's...
son
Kievan cultuere height @
rule of Yaroslav
who established 1st library in Kiev
Yaroslav
Yaroslav's legal system
drew from Justinian's code
mainly for merchants & princes
crimes againts property same as against people
Yaroslav diplomacy
arranged for daughters & sisters to marry kings
Decline of Kiev started after
yaroslav's death - divided lands among sons
Decline of Kiev
latin christians in Const. -> weakened economy
Mongold capture Kiev & destroyed
Mongols called ______ by slavs
Tatars
Mongol rule
taxed
didn't impose culture
requiered service in army & loyalty
affects of Mongol rule
isolated form W
helped unify
less women's rights
more Autocratic
Novgorod attacked
by Swedes
from baltic
wanted to convert to R Cath.
Alexander Nevsky
prince of Novgorod
battle of Neva R
"of the Neva"
national hero & St.
Daniel
Alexander Nevsky's son - rular of Moscow when small prosperous town
laeder of R Ortho
Metropolitan
Metropolitan moved to
moscow
Ivan I's nickname
"money bags"
whey Mongols never went to Novgorod
spring thaw -> mud
Ivan I
cooperated w/ mongols
put down rebellion
tax collector
defeated mongols
Ivan I defeated Mongols @ battle of
Kulikovo
battle of Kulikovo
Ivan I defeated Mongols
Ivan the great
Ivan I
Ivan III
refused to pay tribute
brought many principlaities under rule
Novgorod controled all territories E of Ural Mts.
3rd Rome
Moscow
Tsar
Ivan III marries Sophia - daughter of last Byz. emperor - took tilte Tsar "Ceasar"
& adopted 2 headed eagle
R Ortho chrch said Ivan III
sucessor to byz emperor - all other Tsars said too
Moscow's cultre influenced by
R Ortho
Kremlin
Fortress in Kiev (?)
onion domes
still center of culture & gov.
Cost. Harbor
GOlden Horn
Const. built in image of
Rome
chariot races in Const.
Hippodrome
ooficial court historian
justinian's court
Preocopiuos
secret history
procopious
after justinian's death
chariot races in Const.
Hippodrome
Justinian tech
rising throne
mechanical roaring lions
clockwork birds
Justinian built
baths & aquaducts
Belisarius supported by
theodora
belisaris' background
peasant
Plague
procopius wittnessed
justinian got - servived - theodora ran empire
Difs in chrches
R Cath
Latin
pope
pope over Emperor
bishops can't marry
no divoce

E Ortho
Greek
patriarch
emperor over pope
bishops can marry
famous mosaics
San Vitale in Ravena - Justinian & thoedora
arches filles w/ masonry
pendantives
after a church hagia sophia was
a mosque
museum & chuch
Mother & child icon
Thotokos
3 hinged alter piece
Triptych
Byz. social
hierarchy
patriarchy
Corpus Juris Civilis
justinians code
Military inovations of Byz
Greek fire
textsbooks & academies
new protective armor
javalin
chain accrossed harbor
4th crusade
agreed to sck const. fro Vewnitian merchants - brutal - excamunicayted by pope Innocent III - Litn empire
3 main Russian rivers
Dnieper
Don
Volga
inspection of religions
Vladimir
Islam - impressed but no alcohaul or pork
Jews - thought lacked politcal power
R. Cath - germa services didn't impress
only impressed w/ Hagia Sophia
leader of Mongols
Ghenghiz Khan - ruthless cruelty
"world emperor"
Batu khan
genghis' grandson
Mongol army called
Golden Horde
why const. New Rome
moddled after
emperors & nobilty Roman
called roman
Hippodrome, baths, aquaducts
stratiegic loacle & center of trade