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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Two parts of the pericardium
1. Fibrous Layer - tough/inelastic
2. Serous Layer- thin membrane that secretes a serous fluid
The outer part of the serous membrane lines the ______
inner surface of the fibrous pericardium
The ______ pericardium is also known as the epicardium and is the ______ layer of the heart wall
-visceral layer of the serous pericardium
- outer-most
Space b/w the visceral and parietal layers
Pericardial cavity
Two parts of the pericardial cavity
1. oblique pericardial sinus
2. Transverse pericardial sinus
The _____ pericardial sinus is in the shape of an inverted U and is behind the ________ and bounded on the right side by ______ and the left side by _______.
oblique

left atrium
right pulm. vessels and IVC
left pulm. vessels
The transverse pericardial cavity connects _______ and lies posterior to the ________ and ______ and anterior to the ________.
-the two sides of the pericardial cavity
-pulm. trunk and
-aorta
-SVC
Surgeons use the ______ sinus to put a ligature around the pulm. trunk and ascending aorta
transverse
_____ is a condition in which the serous pericardium becomes inflamed which may cause excess fluid to be secreted in the peroneal cavity. This will cause compression of the heart known as _________.
-Pericarditis
- Cardiac Tamponade
The Pericardium lies behind the _____, extends superiorly up to the level of the _______, and inferiorly to the _________
- sternum
- sternal angle
- xiphisternal jt.
_____ of the heart lies to the right of the midline and ______ lies to the left.
1/3

2/3
The ____ pericardium is fused to the _________ of the diaphragm which means the shape and position of heart change with each breath.
-fibrous
-central tendon
Pericardiocentesis can be done at the LEFT ______ or ______ intercostal space
5th
6th
Two imp. grooves on surface of the heart
1. Coronary (atrioventricular)

2. Interventricular
Coronoary grooves runs around the heart and the ______ _______ run through it
coronary vessels
The Interventric. grooves has two parts:
1. The ANTERIOR part separates the ____ and _____ _______ and continues to the _____ surface of heart. The POSTERIOR part separates the _________ and indicates the side of the _______ internally.
- left and rt. ventricles
- diaphragmatic

- two ventricles
- interventricular septum
Surface of the heart that faces the ribs is ____ and is composed mainly of _____ _____ and both _____
Sternocostal surface
- rt ventricle
- atria
Three surfaces of heart:
1. SternalCostal
2. Left or Pulmonary
3. Diaphragmatic Surface
________ surface is formed primarily by the left ventricle.
Left or Pulmonary
The diaphragmatic surface rests on the _____ and is formed by the ___ and ____ ______.
- diaphragm
- Left and Rt. Ventricles
The _____ of the heart is formed by the left atrium and is the posterior aspect of the heart.
APEX
5 borders of the heart and what they're formed by:
1. Rt. border - formed by rt. atrium
2. Inf. border - formed by rt. ventricle
3. Left border - formed by lt. ventricle
4. Sup. Border- Line that comes across the upper margins of the auricles.
Sup vena cava carries blood from the ___, ____, and ____ as well as the ____ _____
head, neck, and upper limb

thoracic wall
________ carries venous blood from the heart and empties in to the ____ ____.
Coronary sinus

Rt. Atrium
Ridge that separates the smooth and rough wall in rt. atrium
Crista Terminalis
ROUGH walls of atria are characterized by what muscles? The SMOOTH wall of Rt. Atrium receives the _____, _____, and _____
Pectinate muscles
- SVC
- IVC
- Coronary Sinus
_______ valve sperates the rt. atrium and rt. ventricle
Tricuspid
1. Smooth wall part of rt. Ventricle that leads up to the pulmonary trunk

2. Rough Wall part of rt. Ventricle
1. conus arteriosus (infindibulum)

2. Trabeculae Carnea
Pulm. trunk is guarded by a ____ cusp valve called the _____ valve
- 3
- pulmonary valve
There are ____ papillary muscles in the rt. ventricle that attach to their cusps via the _____ ______.
3

chordae tendonae
_____ contract during systole and the ______ and ____ valves must be close during systole to prevent backflow.
1. Ventricles
2. Bicuspid and Tricuspid
Papillary muscles contract during _____.
systole
________ ________ is a band of tissue found only in the RIGHT ventricle and is also known as the _____ _____.
Septomarginal Trabeculae

Moderator Band
The septomarginal trabeculae extends from the lower part of the _____ _____ to the base of the _________.
- IV septum
- ant. papillary muscle.
Significance of septomarginal trabeculae:
Part of the Special Conducting system of the heart
Blood flows into rt atrium through the _____ valve and our through the _____ _______ (not a valve)
- tricuspid

- conus arteriosum
The ____ ventricle is 2 to 3 X thicker than the ____ ventricle
left

right
Smooth walled part of the lt. atrium receives the ______
4 pulmonary veins
The _____ of the lt. atrium is rough walled with ______ muscles
auricle

pectinate
The membranous (thin-walled) part of the IV septum is ______ to the ____ cusp of the ______ ______.
inferior
right
aortic valve
Smooth walled track of blood outflow in the left ventricle is the _______
aortic vestibule
____ is when ventricles fill with blood

_____ is when ventricles contract and expel blood
diastole


systole
Systole:
____ and ____ valves are closed

_____ and ____ valves are open
Tri and Bicusp.

Pulmonary and Aortic
The center of each cusp in the aortic and pulonary valves
nodule
Thin margin on either side of the nodule in the aortic and pulonary valves:
lunule
Space b/w cusp and valve in the and the wall of a vesel
sinus
During diastole, backflow of blood ejected from heart collects in the _____ and pushes the _____ together, sealing the valve
sinuses
cusps
In aorta, blood from the ____ and ____ sinuses will pass into the _____ arteries
left and right
coronary
Best places to auscultate:
Aortic Valve
Pulmonary Valve
Tricuspd Valve
Mitral Valve
AV - 2nd intercostal space just right of sternal border
PV - 2nd intercostal space just left of sternal border
TCV - 5th intercostal space near left sternal border
MV - near apex of heart at 5th intercostal space just medial to midclavic line
Valves can become inflamed in _______ fever allowing reflux of blood to one chamber creating a _____
rheumatic

murmur
Most frequently diseased valve:
Mitral
Rt and Left coronary arteries are the ______ branch off the _______ artery.
first
Ascending Aorta
The Left coronary a. is ____. When it reaches the ____ groove it splits into the _____ a. and the ____ a.
short
AV
Anterior interventricular(LAD)
Circumflex
LAD supplies ____ of the IV septum through ____ branches and supplies the __________.
- 2/3
- septal
- rt. and lt. bundle branches of the conducting system
What happens if blood supply is compromised to conducting system?
Arrythmyia
Bundle branches of conducting system descend on either side of the _____.
IV septum
The Circumflex a. passes around the ____ margin of the heart in the ____ groove to supply the ___ and ____ ____.
Left
AV
left ventricle and left atrium
The Right Coronary a. runs in the ____ groove.
Coronary
The ______ a. branches of the the right coronary a. to supply the ____ and divides into the _____ a. which supplies the ____.
-Anterior right atrial
-Rt. Atrium
-SA Nodal a.
- SA node
Four branches of the rt. coronary artery:
1. Ant. Right Atrial
2. Rt. Marginal
3. Post. IV a.
4. AV Nodal a.
The _____ a branches of the rt. coronary a. and passes along inf. margin of heart
rt. marginal a.
_______ a. branches off the rt. coronary a. just before it terminates and supplies _______.
Post. IV a.
1/3 of IV septum
The ____ a. is the last br. of the rt. coronary a. and supplies the _______
1. AV Nodal a.
2. AV node
Three sites of anastomosis b/w Right and left coronary arteries:
1. Rt. coronary a. w/ circumflex br.
2. Post. IV br. w/ Ant. IV br.
3. B/w Septal branches of post and ant. IV aa's.
6 sites of coronary a. occlusion in order of prevalence:
1. Prox. point of LAD
2. Rt. Coronary a.
3. Prox. Circumflex br.
4. Lt. Coronary a.
5. Post. IV br.
6. Distal rt. coronary a.
Vein often used for coronary artery bypass and vein second most utilized
1. Great Saphenous

2. Left internal thoracic
_____ vein runs with the LAD a.

_____ vein runs with the post. interventricular a.
Great cardiac

Middle cardiac
Most veins of heart empty into the ____ ____ except the _____ veins which _____.
coronary sinus
ant. cardiac veins
empty directly into the rt. atrium from the rt. ventricle.
Conducting system of heart utilizes what fibers?
Modified cardiac muscle fibers that conduct impulse.
The ____ node is located at the upper edge of the cristae terminalis and is known as the _____.
SA

pacemaker
The SA node _________
initates impulse for contraction ehich spread throughout left and rt. atriomusculature
AV node location:
clump of cells located in the lower part of the intra-atrial septum close to the opening of the coronary sinus
After travelling through AV node, impulses propagate through the ______
AV bundle
The Av bundle travels along the edge of the _______ portion of the _______.
membranous
IV septum
One of most common congenital defects of the heart:
Patent Interventricular septum
When the AV bundle reaches the ________ portion of the ______ it ________.
thick-walled
IV septum
splits into rt and lt. bundle branches
The _______ bundle branch passes in the _______ band to the ANT PAPILLARY muscle while other bundle branches will _____.
right
moderator
ramify throughout the myocardium and ventricles
The conducting system of the heart is under the influence of the _________ nervous system.
AUTONOMIC
The ________ supplies nerves to the heart and has two parts:
cardiac plexus
1. Superficial Card. Plex.
2. Deep Card. Plex.
Cardiac Plexus consists of what types of fibers?
1. Symp
2. Parasymp
3. GVA's
Location of superificial cardiac plexus?
-Concavity of aortic arch close to ligamentum arteriosum
-ant. to aortic arch
Deep part of cardiac plexus is located posterior to the _______ and anterior to _______
aortic arch

tracheal bifurcation