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66 Cards in this Set

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Contents of osteo-cartilaginous cage:
1. Two pleural cavities
2. Mediastinum
Contents of mediastinum:
Heart, great vessels, descending esophagus, trachea
Post border of thoracic cavity
12 thor. vertebrae and 12 IV dics
Lateral border and interior border of thoracic cavity
Lateral - ribs
Int - sternum
Which ribs are true and why?
1-7 are true

b.c they attach to sternum itself via their costal cartilages
Whats unique a/b the 1st rib?
- Shorter and broader than the other ribs
- fuses with sternum via a cartilaginous jt.
Which ribs are false and why?
8-10
Cartilages fuse together and join with the 7th rib to articulate w/ inf. aspect of sternum
Atypical Ribs and why?
1st rib - broad, short, sharply curved
2nd rib - thinner, less curved
10th-12th ribs - have only one facet on heads and 11th and 12th are short and have no necks or tubercles.
4 primary parts of a typical rib and which ribs are typical?
head, neck, tubercle, body

-3rd - 9th
3 parts of the sternum and what vertebrae they oppose:
Manubrium- T3-T4
Body - T5-T9
Zyphoid Process - T10
Angle b/w the body of the sternum and the manubrium
Sternal angle
The _____ of the sternum and the _______ form a _____, _______ joint
clavicular notch
clavicle
synovial, saddle jt.
The _______ abdominal contents are protected by the thoracic cage
superior most
Muscles that attach to the rib cage:

All of which are respiratory but _________
pec maj
pec min
part of serr ant.
lat dorsi
scalene muscles

- lat dorsi
Post, Ant, And Lat Boundries of sup. aperture and its contents
Post - 1st thor. vertebrae,
Lat. - 1st pair of ribs and their costal cartilages, Ant. - sup. border of manubrium

esophagus, vagus nerves, great vessels, trachea
Boundries of inf. aperture and its contents
Post: T12
Postlat: Inf borders of 11th and 12th ribs
Antlat: by the joined costal cartliages of 7-10 forming the costal margin
Ant: xiphisternal jt.

inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, nerves, lymphatics
In true ribs, what do the two facets on the head of the rib articulate with?
One art. w/ superiorly w/ the corresponding thor. vert. and the other art. with the vert. below
What is found b/w junction of the neck and body on the typical ribs? What are its two parts?
Tubercle
Articular (smooth) part - Art. w/ corresponding transverse process of that vert.
Non-Articular Part (rough) - attachment of costo-transverse lig. (holds jt in place)
Weakest part of the rib (most likely to fracture)
Just anterior to angle of rib
What lies in the costal groove of the rib?
Inercostal Vein, Artery, Nerve
Most sup. aspect of manubrium
Jugular notch
The first rib fuses with what two bones on the anterior forming what types of joints?
- clavicle, synovial
- manubrium of sternum, cartilaginous jt.
The zyphoid process fuses with the _______ to form a ________ joint
body of sternum

cartilag. jt
The articulation for costal cartilages are ____ joints
synovial
When we inhale we create a ______ pressure and air ______
negative

rushes in
When we exhale we create a ______ pressure and air ______
positive

rushes out
Attachment of the rib to the vertebral column is called a _______ jt. and is _______.
costotransverse

synovial
When we inhale the ribs move _____ and ____
superiorly
laterally
(whole thor. cage is expanded in all directions)
Major muscle of respiration:
diaphragm
Origin of phrenic n.
C3,C4,C5 (4 and 5 principally)
Route of phrenic n.
Descends through neck into thor. cavity,travels along lat. aspect of pericardial sack, terminates on either side of diaphragm
# of intercostal muscles
11
External intercostal muscles run from the _____ margin of the rib above and the _____ margin of the rib below. They ______ the ribs
inferior
superior

elevate
Internal intercostals _____ the ribs except for the ____ which _______
depress (the rib above)
condyl part of the internal intercostal
elevates the ribs (muscle of inspiration)
Patients w/ COPD or emphysema use _____ muscles to assist in breathing
accessory
Disease where lungs become fibrotic and ptx use accessory muscles to breathe
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
The intercostal nerve innervates the ______ and gives off what two branches?
muscles of thoracic wall

-lat. cut. br.
-ant. cut. br.
2 sources of blood supply in thoracic cavity:
1. Thor. Aorta
2. Int. Thor. Artery
The left post. intercostal artery comes off the _____ and passes immediately _____ then _______
aorta
posteriorly
laterally
The rt. post. intercostal a. passes over _____
the vertebral column
The internal thor. artery comes down the ant. part of thor, cage down the sternum to the diaphragm where it changes to the _____ a. along the diaphragm and the _____ a. that continues to course inferiorly
musculophrenic

epigastric
The internal thoracic a. will have two branches come off which are _______ arteries
anterior intercostal
Post. intercostal aa's come from the ______ while ant. intercostal aa's come from the _______
thor. aorta

Internal Thoracic
A condition called _________ would lead to large intercostal aa's and internal thoracic artery.
Coarctatation of aorta...uses intercostals to help deliver blood to the descending aorta since aorta is stenosed.
The azygos vein forms a collateral pathway b/w the ____ and _____ and drains blood from the ________.
SVC
IVC

post. thorax and abdomen
On the right side, intercostal veins combine to form the ________ vein
azygos
The right _______ intercostal veins join together to form the right superior intercostal vein.
2nd
3rd
and 4th
The _____ and _____ veins will drain into the SVC.
Azygos
Right sup. intercostal
The left _______ intercostal veins join together to form the accessory hemiazygous
5th
6th
7th
The left _______ intercostal veins join together to form the left sup. intercostal vein
2nd
3rd
4th
The left superior intercostal vein drains into the ________
left brachiocephalic vein
Part of plaura that surrounds the lungs
visceral pleura
Fluid that lies in the pleural space
serous fluid
The function of the pleura is ________
to provide a smooth space for movement
The apex of each lung extends above _____
the first rib
During a thoracentesis, a needle is placed into the ______ intercostal space and fluid is aspirated
6th, 7th, or 8th
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung can give rise to what syndrome if it compresses the cervical chain ganglion? Whats the classic triad?
Horners syndrome

1. Constricted pupil (miosis)
2. Partial Ptosis
3. Anhidrosis (loss of hemi-facial swelling)
Costodiaphragmatic recess extends down from what intercostal spaces?
T6-T8
The Phrenic n. innervates the ____ and _______
diaphragm and central part diaphragmatic pleura
The innercostal nevres innervate what two parts of the pluera?
lateral costal pleura
lateral part of diaphragmatic pleura
A ______ results when a significant amt. of fluid collects in the pleural cavity
pleural effusion
A ___ results when air is introduced into the pleural cavity
pneumothorax (usually iatrogenic)
An infection b.w parietal and visceral pleura
pleuracy
In pleuracy, the lungs _______ as they expand and is marked by _____
don't move smoothly
intense pain
Blood in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
In bilateral pleural effusions one may do a thoracentesis to look for _____
malignant cells