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21 Cards in this Set

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Lymphangitis
Inflammation of afferent lymphatic vessels
Lymphadenitis
Inflammation of a lymph node
Lymphadenopathy
Swollen lymph nodes ("glands").

May be a sign of a distant infection or a more ominous sign of a lymphoma or the metastatic spread of a primary tumor to a metastatic location
Lymphedema
Noticeable accumulation of lymph in a region (usually an extremity) when the outflow lymphatic pathways are congenitally absent or blocked or damaged during surgery
Lymphoma
A neoplastic growth and expansion of lymphocytes that can cause enlargement of lymph nodes along regional lymphatic chains
Describe lymphatic capillaries
Single endothelial layer with many gaps between neighboring cells. Lack tight junctions. High permeability.
After lymph filters through lymph nodes and moves through lymphatic ducts, where does lymph rejoin the circulatory system?
The lymphatic vessels dump lymph into the venous return at the jugulovenous angle in the neck
What are 3 functions of the lymphatic system?
1. Lymph formation
2. Immune defense
3. fat/intestinal absoprtion
Describe the lymph formation function of the lymphatic system
Endothelial cells in lymphatic capillaries lack tight junctions.

Overlapping endothelial junctions are anchored to filaments. When fluid increases in the tissue, these passive anchors pull open the gaps between cells.
Describe the immune defense function of the lymphatic system
If pathogens invade body tissues, some become transported with interstitial fluid into lymphatic capillaries.

Regional lymph nodes typically contain infections regionally and prevent their systemic impact.
Describe the fat/intestinal absorption function of the lymphatic system
Lacteals (highly absoprtive lymphatic capillaries in each intestinal villus) preferentially take up large molecular weight molecules (lipids and lipophilic compounds such as fat-soluble vitamins).

Lipophilic particles suspended in lymph are chylomicrons.

Lymphatic vessels converge into intestinal trunks, which drain lymph into the chyle cistern, which empties into the thoracic duct, which empties into the venous angle in the left root of the neck
What are the two anatomic divisions of the lymphatic system?
Superficial system (for skin) vs Deep system (for viscera)
Describe the superficial lymphatic system
- drains the skin
- slightly deeper to and parallel to the deep veins in each extremity
Describe the deep lymphatic system
- drains the viscera
- flow patterns generally drain toward the chyle cistern
- lymph then moves upward through the thoracic duct to enter large veins at the left venous angle
Where do horizontal inguinal nodes receive lymph from?
- Anterior abdominal wall below umbilicus
- Posterior and lateral hip, buttocks, perineum
Where do vertical inguinal nodes receive lymph from?
lower limb except lateral thigh
What are some general rules about superficial lymphatic drainage patterns on the anterior and posterior trunk?
- In the anterior body wall, skin above the umbilicus drains upward to the axilla
- cutaneous lymphatic capillaries drain to nodes on the same side
- the regional drainage pattern on the back mirrors that of the anterior
- skin below the waist/umbilicus drains downward