Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bessemer process
cheap, efficient way to make steel
black codes
laws, in Southern states after Civil War, to limit rights of African Americans
Bleeding Kansas
description of the antebellum Kansas Territory, due to conflict over slavery
Columbian Exchange
movement of plants, animals, and disease between the Americas and Europe after Columbus's voyage
freeing of slaves
executive branch
administers and enforces laws
supporter of the Constitution and strong national government
grandfather clause
exempted Southern whites from the strict requirments applied to African-American voters
organization of farmers to combat power of railroads, late 19th century
policy of extending national influence over other countries by political, economic, or military means
Indian Removal Act
1830 law requiring Native Americans east of the Mississippi River to move to the West
Industrial Revolution
the change in society that occurred through replacing hand tools with machines and developing large-scale industry, late 19th-early 20 th century
judicial branch
interprets the laws and Constitution
Ku Klux Klan
secret white supremacist organization that terrorized African Americans during Reconstruction
legislative branch
makes laws
a colonist who supported the British government during the American Revolution
manifest destiny
19th-century belief that U.S. would inevitably spread to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexico
complete control of an industry by a single company
a state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress it considers unconstitutional
Radical Republican
Reconstruction congressmen who favored full rights for African Americans and decreased power for former slave owners
period of rebuilding after the Civil War, former Confederate states readmitted to the Union
formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
States' rights
belief that rights of individual states take priority over laws of the national government
the right to vote
Trail of Tears
route of forced Cherokee evacuation from Georgia, 1838
consolidation of competing companies into one large corporation