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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Democracy
A political system in which decision-making power is widely shared among members of the society.
Equality
The idea that all persons have an equal claim to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Individualism
The idea that dignity and integrity of the individual is of supreme importance.
Liberty
The idea that individual citizens of a democracy should have a high degree of self-determination.
Public administration
The management of public programs.
Agenda setting
Phase in the public policy process when certain problems come to be seen as needing attention.
Constituent policy
Policy designed to benefit the public generally or serve the government.
Distributive policy
Policy involving the use of general tax fund to rpovide assistance and benefits to individuals or groups.
Executive Order
A presidential mandate directed to and governing, with effect of law, the actions of government officials and agencies.
Legislative veto
Statutory provision that gives Congress the authority to approve or disapprove certain executive actions.
Policy
Statement of goals and intention with respect to a particular problem or set of problems
Redistributive policy
Policy designed to take taxes from certain groups and give them to another group.
Regulatory Policy
Policy designed to limit actions of persons or groups to protect all or parts of the general public
Block grants
Grants in which the money can be used for nearly any purpose within a specific functional field
Capital grants
Grants for use in construction or renovation
Categorical or project grants
Grants requiring that the money may be spent for only a limited purpose; typically available on a competitive basis.
Charter
Local government's equivalent of a constitution
Cross-cutting requirements
rules that apply to most grant programs
Dillon's Rule
Municipalities have only those powers granted in their charters; cities are creatures of the state.
Entitlement grants
Grants that provide assistance to persons who meet certain criteria
Formula grants
Grants that employ a specific division rule to indicate how much money any given jurisdiction will receive.
Home rule
provision allowing cities greater autonomy over local activities
Operating grants
grants for use in development and operation of specific programs.
Preemption
Federal government efforts to preempt an area traditionally associated with state government.
Privatization
Use of nongovernmental agencies to provide goods and services previously provided by government
Special Districts
Local governments created for a specific purpose within a specific area
Deontology
Belief that broad principles of rightness and wrongness can be established and are not dependent on particular circumstances
Ethical Relativism
Belief that moral judgment can be made only be taking into account the context in which action occurs
Ethics
Process by which we clarify right and wrong and act on what we take to be right.
Morality
Practices and activities considered right or wrong and act on what we take to be right.
Neutral competence
The belief that a neutral public bureacracy following mandates of a legislative body will meet the requirement of democracy
Utilitarianism
Philosophy of the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Benchmarking
Targeting of specific goals based on previous performance levels, standards set by similar organizations, objectives created through a strategic planning process, or any combination of these and other relevant sources
Cost-Benefit
Identifying and quantifying both negative impacts (costs) and positive impacts (benefits) of a proposal, then subtracting one from the other to arrive at a net benefit
Institutional Subsystem
Responsible for adapting the organization to its environment
Managerial subsystem
Concerned with providing necessary resources for accomplishing a technical task and mediating between the technical and institutional subsystems
Outcome evaluations
Evaluations that focus on the results of program activity, the extent to which a program meets its objectives in terms of impact on the environment
Performance indicators
Specific, quantifiable goals that the agency strives for in pursuit of more substantive objectives
Performance measurement
careful and detailed measurement of the achievement of program objectives and outcomes by a program or agency
policy analysis
process of researching or analyzing public programs to provide policy makers with specific information about the range of available policy options and advantages and disadvantages of different approaches
process evaluations
seeking ways to improve program implementation so as to better meet program objectives
Stakeholders
the many different person who are involved in policy decision and are affected by the results
Strategic planning
matching organizational objectives and capabilities to the anticipated demands of the environment to produce a plan of action that will ensure achievement of objectives
systems theory
effort to identify the interactions of various internal and external elements that impinge on an organization's operations
Technical subsystem
Concerned with effective performance of an organization's actual work
apportionment
the process by which funds are allocated to agencies for specific portions of the year
appropriation
legislative action to set aside funds and create budget authority for their expenditures
authorizing legislation
legislative action that permits establishment or continuation of a particular program or agency
capital expenditures
spending for items that will be used over a period of several years
Deferral
decision by the president to withhold expenditure of funds for a brief period
discretionary spending
that portion of the budget still open to changes by the president and the congress
entitlement programs
programs that provide specified set of benefits to those who meet certain eligibility requirements
excise tax
tax applied to the sale of specific commodities
fiscal policy
public policy concerned with the impact of government taxation and spending on the economy
item veto
allows the executive to veto specific items in an appropriations bill
line-item budget
budget format for listing categories of expenditures along with amounts allocated to each
outcome-based budgeting
budgeting system that takes into account long-term effects or outcomes
performance auditing
analysis and evaluation of the effective performance of agencies in carrying out their objectives
performance budget
budget format organized around programs or activities, including various performance measurements that indicate the relationship between work actually done and its cost
planning-programming-budgeting system(PPBS)
effort to connect planning, systems analysis and budgeting in a single exercise
progressive tax
one that taxes those with higher incomes at a higher rate
proportional tax
one that taxes everyone at the same rate
regressive tax
one that taxes those with lower incomes at a proportionally higher rate than those with higher incomes
zero-base budgeting
budget format that presents information about the efficiency and effectiveness of existing programs and highlights possibilities for eliminating or reducing programs