Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define "geography" and "geographists".
Description of the earth.
Geographists ask where, and study spatial relationships.
Explain dualism in geography.
Physical Geography (climatology, geomorphology, biogeography) vs. Cultural or Social Geography (people, economic, historical)
Define Regional Geographic approach
All topics of geography within one region
ex: Boston - climatology, geomorphology, biogeography, economic, historical, etc
Defiine systematic Geographical Approach
One topic of geography for all regions.
ex: climatology of the world.
Define Region
A part of the earth's surface that has one or more unifying characteristics (cultural, physical, political)
ex: physical regions - continents
ex: cultural regions - Anglo America vs. Latin America
Name the two types of regions
1) formal - long term boundaries (ex: New England)
2) functional - boundaries that may fluctuate (ex: newspaper readership areas)
Define map and tell what three things all maps need
Map - a two dimensional representation of all or part of the earth's surface
3)Lat & Long
Fill in the blank:
The smaller the map scale, the ________the region shown
Latitude - N or S of the equator? or E or W of the prime meridian?
N S of equator
Longitude - N or S of the equator? or E or W of the prime meridian?
E W of Prime Meridian
Map Making - shape, size, distance, direction - why do flat maps always have one of these features distorted?
Flat maps can never encompass all four features accurately - only a globe can. Maps are made for different reasons - distance may be accurate, but other features would be distorted on that map.
What must world have in order for population to grow?
Food production must be able to support increase. If not, pop. will not increase.
Which continent has the biggest population concentration?
Asia. East Asia - 25%, South Asia 20%
Tell about Demographic cycle - Stage I
High Stability - high birth rate, high death rate
Tell about Demographic cycle - Stage II
High Birth Rate, Falling death rate, due to better diet.
Tell about Demographic cycle - Stage III
Falling birth rate, stable low death rate (industrialization)
Tell about Demographic cycle - Stage IV
Low - Stability - Low birth rate, low death rate - Industrialized
Define Resource
Anything that can be used
Explain how resources are correlated with the level of technology
The greater the technology present, the more resources used.
Define culture
Learned behavior / way of life
List 5 stages of prehistory (these were gradual changes over time)
1) upright position (bipedalism)
2) eyesight improvement
3) voice mechanism
4) hand structure
5) brain
What were the benefits of humans evolving to the upright position during prehistory?
1) frees up hands
2) makes you taller
Define evolution
changes over time
Describe Nomadic Hunter/Gatherers relationship with nature
They take what is available from nature but don't interfere with nature
How many hunter/gatherers were in a group?
about 30
What was the male role of the hunter/gatherer?
Males hunted
What were the female roles of the hunter/gatherer?
gathered, raised children.
When were nomadic hunter/gatherers present on earth?
Up until about 10,000 years ago.
Why was it important for hunter gatherers to be in groups?
cooperation was necessary to survive
How did communication evolve between hunter gatherers?
speaking evolved, therefor communication was able to evolve.
What was the impact of tool evolution for hunter gatherers?
Tool evolution allowed people to enhance their own ability.
What was a major discovery during the hunter gatherer period?
Discovery of fire.
Why was the discovery of fire during the hunter gatherer period important?
1) cooking benifits - safer food.
2) warmth - able to survive in colder climates.
3) protection from animals
What was the people's relationship with the land during the Agricultural/Neolithic revolution?
People were beginning to manipulate the environment.
What is the Neolithic revolution?
The agricultural revolution.
Give a short definition of the Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution
The domestication of plants and animals
When was the Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution?
10,000 to 8,000 B.C.
Name 7 changes during the period of the Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution.
1) Became Sedentary
2) Began to amass material posessions
3) Population growth (food supplies more stable)
4) More sophisticated tool use. (Labor specialization)
5) Development of trade
6) Private property
7) Technology - wheels, sails, metals, etc
Why did people change from hunter/gatherers to sedentary during the Agricultural/Neolithic Revolution?
Village communities began to form - People began to stay in one place to cultivate the land and farm.
In what time period did people begin to amass personal posessions?
Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution.
Why did the population begin to grow in the Agricultural/Neolithic Revolution?
Food supplies became more stable.
In what time period did Labor Specialization come in to play?
Neolithic / Agricultural Revolution.
Why did labor specialization begin to develop during the Agricultural / Neolithic revolution?
Tools started becoming more sophisticated, and people began to become more sedentary, allowing for the specialization of labor.
In what time period was trade developed?
Trade routes began to be developed during the Agricultural / Neolithic revolution.
In what time period did private property start to develop?
The agricultural / neolithic revolution.
What were some of the consequences of the development of provate property during the neolithic/agricultural revolution?
1) Class division develops
2) Some begin to have more than others.
3) Village leaders, elite, etc. begin to emerge
In the neolithic / agricultural revolution, agricultural villages evolved into __________.
How did the way people live evolve during the agricultural / neolithic revolution?
They way they lived evolved from agricultural villages in around 8000bc to civilizations around 3500bc.
Define the Industrial Revolution
The process of change in how work is done from work being done by hand tools powered by human or animal muscle power to work being done by machines powered by some types of inanimate energy (steam, electricity, etc)
Industrial Revolution - Change from hand tools powered by human or animal power to work done by __________ powered by some types of ___________ such as __________or _____________.
machines......inanimate energy....steam.....electricity
List 6 background causes of the Industrial Revolution.
1) Commercial Revolution
2) Scientific Revolution
3) Growth of the European Population
4) Development of Market
5) 2nd Agricultural Revolution
6) Rise of the Middle Class
The commercial revolution was a background cause of the industrial Revolution. Define the commercial revolution.
The buying and selling of goods. 1500+
The commercial revolution was a background cause of the industrial Revolution. Tell about how the buying and selling of goods came about.
Holy Wars to reclaim the holy land. While soldiers were out east, they ate new foods and spices. When they returned, spices became in demand. Spice Trade = $. Columbus sails to get spices, and ends up "discovering new world". High demand---commercial revolution.
What is the Columbian Exchange (commercial revolution)?
exchange of plants, animals, and diseases
How does the global balance shift during the commercial revolution?
Europe becomes wealthy - merchant class becomes wealthy.
What is the commercial revolution a precursor to?
The Industrial Revolution.
Define science
Tested knowledge
Define Technology
applied science
What was the scientific revolution a precursor to?
The industrial revolution
Name an important event in the Scientific Revolution, a precursor to the Industrial Revolution
1) Copernicus discovers heliocentric universe (we revolve around the sun)
2) Isaac Newton - Laws of Nature
How did the commercial revolution and the scientific revolution (both precursors to the industrial revolution) tie in together.
Commerce worked well with science - means bigger business
How was the growth of the European population a precursor to the Industrial revolution?
Growing pop. is incentive for businesses to produce more.
what is capital?
anything that can be used to create more wealth - cash, real estate, etc
Which revolution was the development of a market a precursor to?
the industrial revolution
During the precursor to the industrial revolution, the economy changed from a substinance economy to a _____________ economy
What was the Second Agricultural Revolution?
Science and technology applied to agriculture
What was the secondary agricultural revolution a precursor to?
the industrial revolution
How did the second agricultural revolution ( a precursor to the industrial revolution) have an effect on the food supply?
Food supply increased.
The rise of the middle class was a background factor in the start of the ___________ _________________.
Industrial Revolution
Name some conditions during 18th century England
1) 2nd Agricultural revolution
2) Labor Supply
3) Colonial Empire (1763)
4) Merchant Marine
5) British Navy most powerful
6) Business development
7) Technological skill & inventiveness
8) Resources
9) transportation system
10) textile industry
11) middle class
12) stable govt (1688)
List some of the business development in 18th century england
1) banks, credit, insurance, corporations
2) stock market
3) investment capital
List two natural resources in 18th century england
1) coal
2) iron ore
List two features of the transportation system in 18th century england
1) shipping / ocean fleets
2) canal system throughout england's rivers
describe the middle class during 18th century England
1) growing
2) willing to take economic risk
When did the wool industry start to mechanize in England?
1780's - 1790's
List two new forms of transportation with the invention of the steam engine.
1) steamboat
2) steam engine railroad
What were some of the impacts of the steam enginization of transportation?
1) Possible land transportation
2) companies become centralized, not localized
3) Designed for freight, but PEOPLE began to want to travel / commmute, etc
4) led to further segregation of classes
List some results of the Industrial Revolution
1) productivity
2) standard of living increase in industrialized areas
3) resource use increase
4) environmental impact
5) specialization of labor
6) population growth
7) food supply growth
8) knowledge revolution
9) transportation & communication
10) changes in social class / system
11) modern capitalism / big business
12) rise of big labor, labor unions
13) changed in global balance of power - countries who industrialized gained more power
14) rise of socialism
15) social & human costs
16) rapid change
17) gender roles
As a result of the industrail revolution, which countries began to gain more power?
countries that industrialized
List the 5 stages of economic growth as penned by author Rostow
1)tradition stage - subsistane agriculture
2)invention & preconditioning
3)take-off stage
4)drive to economic maturity
5)economic maturity
What is the different between weather & climate?
Weather is the immediate atmospheric conditions - climate is long term
What source ultimately controls the weather & climate?
the sun - solar energy
Describe the difference of how land and water heats and cools
Water takes longer to heat, and longer to cool. Land heats up in a short period of time, but can also cool down in a short period of time.
what kind of pressure is needed for high winds?
low pressure
Define relative humidity
The % of the amount of moisture the air is holding at a particular temp. Different air temps can hold different amts. of moisture. Warm air holds more, cold air holds less.
Define the dew point
The temp at which an air mass will reach 100%. If the temp drops, it will rain or snow.
About how many degrees does the air cool for each 1000ft in elevation rise?
3.3 degrees F
Name the three types of uplift in the weather.
1) convectional uplift
2) frontal uplift
3) orographic uplift (mountain)
Define convectional uplift.
sun beats on earth, hot air rises, air cools, clouds form, air reaches dewpoint, it rains
define frontal uplift
cold air comes in, warm air is driven up (warm air rises), warm air cools, reaches dew point, it rains (ex - rocky mtn air meets gulf stream air)
define orographic uplift (mountain)
windward side of mtn.. warm wind hits mtn, rises up the windward side.. cools, reaches dewpoint, rains on leeward side, air warms up at bottom, dries out
Moisture distribution over the world - even or uneven?
Where do most people in the world live?
near water/precipitation - coastal plains/river valleys
What is a landform?
a single physical feature - mtn., lake, etc
What is a landscape?
All the landforms in an area.. trees, lakes, mtn, etc
What are the three main forces of erosion?
water, ice, wind
What is deposition in reference to weather/climate?
fact that land eroded with deposit itself somewhere else.
Mountain building is an example of ____________ ______________.
tectonic forces
Define relief
difference between highest & lowest point
ex: bcc campus might have 20ft difference around campus.. Low Relief
List the 4 main landforms
1) Plains
2) plateau
3) hill
4) mountain