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290 Cards in this Set

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Who was George Washington?
First President under the Constitution
What was in place before the Constitution?
Articles of Confederation
What replaced the Articles of Confederation?
The Constitution
Who was the first President under the Articles of Confederation?
John Hanson
What were Washington's 3 basic goals?
1. Keep the US unified
2. Neutrality
3. Make sure the new government didn't fail
What were the first two "political parties"?
1. Federalists
2. Anti-Federalists
What did the first Federalists want?
wanted a strong national government, weaker states
What did the Anti-Federalists want?
Wanted states to have more power than the national government
What was first opportunity for Neutrality?
French Revolution
Who was fighting in the French Revolution?
Great Britian and France
Washington knew he would set __________
Precedents
What are precedents?
Rules for others to follow
What was a main precedent that Washington set?
Two terms is enough
What law did Washington pass that set up courts?
Judiciary Act of 1789
What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do?
1. Set up the Supreme Court of the United States
2. Set up other Federal Courts
How many justices were originally on the Supreme Court?
Six
How many separate district courts were set up? How many court of appeals?
13 district courts, 3 court of appeals
What was the first law Congress passed about slaves?
Fugitive Slave Act
What did the Fugitive Slave Act allow?
1. Slave hunters could capture escaped slaves in any state, even if it was a "free state"
2. Escaped slave wasn't entitled to trial by a jury, only by a judge
3. There was a $500 fine to help hide an escaped slave
What did the government want to set up to handle money?
National Bank
What 2 parties emerged during the time of the National Bank?
1. Federalists
2. Democratic-Republicans
Who was the leader of the Federalists?
Alexander Hamilton
What was Hamilton's position in the government?
Secratary of the Treasurer
What identified the Federalists?
1. Strong national government
2. From the North
3. Business people
4. Loose constructionists
What do "loose constructionists" support?
The "Elastic Cause" or "Necessary and proper clause"
Where is the Elastic Clause found?
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution
What does the Elastic Clause say?
Congress may pass laws that are necessary and proper to carry out powers enumerated in the constitution
What does "enumerated" mean?
Listed
Who was the leader of the Democratic-Republicans?
Thomas Jefferson
What was Jefferson's place in government?
Secratary of State
What identified the Democratic-Republicans?
1. Strong state government
2. From the south
3. Agricultural workers/farmers
4. Strict constructionists
What are strict constructionists?
Ones who don't like the elastic clause
What was the debate about the National Bank?
Nowhere in the Constitution did it say the Federal government had the right to create it
What were the 4 major functions of the National bank?
1. Federal government would have a place to keep money
2. Could provide loans for businesses
3. Could sell bonds
4. Aid in collecting taxes
Why did the Democratic-Republicans hate the elastic clause?>
Every time it was used, the states lost power
What does the 10th amendment state?
Any power not given to the federal government, nor denied of the states, is given to the states
What amendment says that states can have power that is not given to the fed. government and not denied to the states?
10th Amendment
What is an excise tax?
A tax on a specific product
What rebellion was the result of an excise tax?
The Whiskey Rebellion
WHat did people to do tax collectors?
Attacked them, beat them, tarred and feathered them
What rebellion took place previously that scared the people?
Shays' Rebellion
Where did Shays' rebellion take place?
Mass.
Who lead Shays' Rebellion?
Daniel Shays
What did Shays do to rebel?
Attacked courthouses
Who led an army of 15,000 men to stop the Whiskey Rebellion?
George Washington and Alexander Hamilton
What happened when Washington lead the army to PA?
Farmers hid, rebellion ended
Where did the Whiskey Rebellion take place?
PA
What was the result of the Whiskey Rebellion ending?
Gave confidence that the government could protect its citizens
What were America's 4 basic problems with Great Britian?
1. GB was angry over losing the colonies
2. GB was seizing American ships
3. GB was impressing American sailors (impressment)
4. GB still had soldiers posted at over 1/2 dozen forts on American Territory
Who did Washington send to GB to come up with a treaty?
John Jay
Who was John Jay?
Justice of the Supreme Court
What did John Jay agree to?
Jay's Treaty
What did Jay's Treaty state?
1. GB would pull its soldiers out of Americna Territory
2. GB would pay for stolen ships and stop stealing and seizing the ships
What was the major exclusion in Jay's Treaty?
Impressment of the soldiers
What was the name of the treaty between US and Spain?
Pinckney's Treaty OR Treaty of San Lorenzo
Who negotiated a treaty with Spain?
Thomas Pinckney
Why was Spain so willing to accept a treaty?
Spain and GB were enemies, US had treaty with GB
What did Pinckney's treaty say?
1. Allowed US to use the Mississippi river
2. Allowed farmers to store goods at New Orleans without paying a tax
3. Agreed on the boundaries between US and Spain
What was the advantage to the US using the Miss river?
Huge boom to the economy
What were the boundaries set between America and Spain?
Ended ont he northern border of Florida and went west ot the Miss. River
What was the geographical name of the boundary between US and Spain?
31st Parallel
What was the name of Washington's letter to the American people at the end of his two terms?
Washington's Farewell Address
What were the 2 warnings Washington gave in his Farewell Address?
1. Involvement in international entanglement
2. Americans must unite (no parties)
What is the word that describes saying out of other countries' affairs?
Isolationism
What was one of America's foreign policies for years?
Isolationism
Why didn't Washington want political parties?
The parties only cared about themselves, not the country
What 2 parties were starting to form during Washington's time?
1. Federalists
2. Democratic-Republicans
Who ran in the election of 1796?
1. John Adams
2. Thomas Jefferson
What was Adam's role before the Election of 1796?
Vice president under Washington
What party was Adams a part of?
Federalists
What party was Thomas Jefferson under?
Democratic-Republican
Who won the election of 1796?
John Adams
What sort of troubles were there between US and France during Adams' time?
French were capturing American ships, steeling them and the goods, and imprisoning the soldiers
What was the name of the French government?
The Directory
Who was sent to negotiate with the French under Adams?
Charles Pinckney
What was The Directory's immediate response to Pinckney?
They refused to meet with him
What were Adams' two choices regarding French?
1. Go to war
2. Continue to try to negotiate
What did Adams do after The Directory wouldn't meet with Pinckney?
Sent three people, including Pinckney
What is the name of what happened with the 3 people Adams sent to France?
XYZ affair
Who met the people Adams sent to france?
3 French officials
What did the 3 French officials demind?
1. They men had to pay the 3 frenchmen a bribe
2. The government would give a huge loan to The Directory
What did Adams do after the French insulted America?
Addressed congrerss, and said that the only recourse would be war
Who didn't believe Adams' report about the French?
Democratic-Republicans
What did Adams do to get the Democratic-Republicans to believe him?
Made the report public
Why is the XYZ affair so named?
In the public report, the 3 french officials were named X, Y, and Z.
What was the name of the 2-year non-declared war?
Quasi War
What was the relation between GB and France?
they were enemies
How would the British help America in the Quasi war?
1. Help to train our officers
2. Weapons at sea
3. Active communication with our ships at sea
What did Bonaparte tell Adams?
France would stop attacking if America would stop attacking
What acts heightened tension between the US and France?
Alien and Sedition Acts
What was the reason the Federalists gave for the Alien and Sedition acts?
To protect America from the French
What were the 4 Alien and Sedition Acts?
1. Naturalization Act
2. Alien Enemies Act
3. Alien Friends Act
4. Sedition Act
What was the Naturalization Act?
In order to be a US citizen, you had to live here at least 14 years (previously 5 years)
Who was not allowed to vote in the US?
people who were not citizens
What was the Alien Enemies Act?
The President may deport any alien from an enemy country if that alien is deemed to threaten National Security
What was the Alien Friends Act?
The President may deport any alien from a friendly country, if that nation is deemed to threaten National Security
What was the Sedition Act?
It was a crime to criticize the government (speak or write anything flase or malicious)
Why did the Democratic-Republicans think the Alien and Seditions Acts were passed?
The Federalists just wanted to sustain their party
Why would the A&S Acts help the Federalist party?
1. Most new citizens were joining the Democratic-Republicans
2. If you can't criticize the government, nobody hears anything negative and everyone thinks it's okay
What were the States responses to the A&S Acts?
They passed resolutions
What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions say?
States created the Federal Government, the Federal government was given certain powers by the constitution... and States can nullify federal laws.
Who were the Authors of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
Who ran in the election of 1800 and in what parties?
John Adams: Federalist
Thomas Jefferson: Democratic-Republican
Who won the election of 1800 and why?
Jefferson won because people were upset at the Federalists for the A&S Acts
Who won 2nd place in the election of 1800 and what place did they take?
Aaron Burr, vice president
What debate went to the Supreme court immediately after Jefferson took office?
Marbury v. Madison
What did Adams do just before leaving office?
Made dozens of appointments that were confirmed by Senate
What were the appointments made by Adams known as?
Midnight Appointments
What does the president sign granting appointment?
Commissions
What happened to 4 of the commissions signed by Adams?
They were not delivered before he left office
Who was in charge of delivering the President's commissions?
the Secratary of State
What did Jeffereson tell his secratary of state to do with Adams' commsissions>
Not to deliver them
Who was Jefferson's secretary of state?
James Madison
Who was upset because his commission was not delivered?
William Marbury
Who was the chief justice of the Supreme Court during the time of Marbury v. Madison?
John Marshall
Why was John Marshall "between a rock and a hard place" because of Marbury v. Madison?
1. IF the supreme court orders Madison do deliver the commission, he wouldn't do it and it would make the court look weak
2. If the S.C. didn't order Madison to deliver it, it makes them look as though they're afraid to order him
What was Marshall's solution to Marbury v. Madison?
Writ of Mandamus
What Act is the Writ of Mandamus based in?
Judiciary Act of 1789
What does the Judiciary Act of 1789 say?
Federal courts have the power to issue a Writ of Mandamus
What is a writ of mandamus?
Court order wherin the court orders a government official to act
What did Marshall do with the Writ of mandamus?
Siad that seciont 13 of teh Judiciary Act (writ of mandamus) was unconstitutional
Why could Marshall deem the writ of mandamus unconstitional?
Judicial review
What is Judicial review?
power of the courts to deem whether or not laws are constitutional
Where was the Barbary war?
Barbary Coast in North Africa
What were the 4 Barbary countries?
1. Morocco
2. Algiers
3. Tunis
4. Tripoli
What was the US policy washington had begun that was carried out until the Barbary war?
Policy of appeasement
What is the policy of appeasment?
Give 'em what they want and hope they'll go away and leave you alone
What was the problem with the Barbary countries?
pirates lurking around North Africa
How did appeasement come into affect with the Barbary war?
We had paid the countries to leave American ships alone
Why did the Barbary countries become a problem to Jefferson?
He refused to pay the tribute
What four things did the Barbary Pirates do?
1. Attacked American Ships
2. Stole the ships
3. Stole the goods
4. Sold American sailors into slavery
What did the Barbary powers do?
Declared war on the US?`
What was the famous saying by Jefferson about Barbary?
"Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"
How did the Barbary War resolve?
US and Barbary countries agreed to end war and not attack each others ships
The Lousiana Purchase purchased what?
The Lousiana Territory
Who controlled the Louisiana Territory before it was purchased?
France, and before that Spain
Why did France control the L.T.?
Bonaparte conquered Spain
Why is it speculated Bonaparte was willing to sell the LT?
1. Needed money to carry on a series of wars
2. Malaria had killed thousands of people in the New World
3. Bonaparte was getting sick and didn't really think it through
Who did Malaria kill in the New World?
Soldiers stationed in Haiti
How much was the LT sold for?
$15 Million
Who did Jefferson send to France to negotiate?
James Monroe
Robert Livingston
Who did Jefferson send to explore the LT?
Merriwether Lewis
William Clark
What were the 3 goals of the Lewis and Clark expidition?
1. Find a Northwest Passage
2. Collect data on the Flora and the Fauna
3. Map the area
What is the Northwest passage?
Water passage across the entire continent to Asia, believed to be the Missouri river
Who was Thomas Jefferson's cheif aid?
Merriwether Lewis
What city did the L&C expedition start at?
St. Louis
Upon what river did the expedition travel up?
Missouri
What did L&C do when they reached the falls on the Missouri?
Portaged 17 miles around the falls
Who was the Shoshone Cheif in relation to Sacagawea?
Her brother
Why did the natives gather around the river?
To watch the men drown because of the rapids
What river did L&C take to the Pacific?
The Columbia
Who eventually became the governer of the Louisiana Territory?
Merriwether Lewis
What was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase/Lewis and Clark expedition?
1. Inspired settlement
2. Led to Manifest Destiny
3. Beginning of the end for Native Americans
What was Manifest Destiny?
America was given a divine mission: to expand all the way across the continent
Who was the famous Dual between?
Aaron Burr v. Alexander Hamilton
What was Burr's position?
Vice President
What was Alexader Hamilton's position>
Federalist
Who ran for governor of New York?
Aaron Burr
What did Hamilton tell the people of NY to do?
to Not vote for Burr
What was the outcome of Burr's run for govorner?
Lost, and blamed Hamilton
Why was Burr offended at Hamilton?
He didn't apologize
What did Burr do when he was offended by Hamilton?
Challenged him to a dual
Where did Burr v. Hamilton Dual take place?
Weehawken, NJ
Who won the Dual?
Aaron Burr
Who was France's greatest enemy during Jefferson's term?
Great Britain
How was the US making a lot of money during Jefferson's term?
Selling goods to France and GB
Why was the Embargo Act passed?
British and French were ocasionally attacking our ships, mostly British were impressing our men
What did the Embargo Act say/
US would stop selling goods to France and GB
What was the result of the Embargo Act?
Economy dropped
What was the controversy about Jefferson concerning?
His slave, Sally Hemings
What was the rumor about Sally Hemings?
That Jefferson was the fater of Hemings' children
Who was president after Jefferson?
James Madison
Who is considered the Father of the constitution?
James Madison
What party was Madison a part of?
Democratic-Republican
What law did Madison pass immiedately?
Non-Intercourse Act
What was the Non-Intercourse Act?
It was legal to sell goods to every country except GB and France
What was the sucess of the Non-Intercourse Act?
It didn't help that much
What law was named after Nathaniel Macon?
Macon's Bill #2
What did Macon's Bill #2 say?
It was allowable to trade with France and GB as long as they respected our neutrality
Who gave their word to Madison about Macon's Bill #2?
GB: Foreign minister, David Erskine
France: Napoleon Bonaparte
What did GB and france do in regard to Macon's Bill #2?
Lied, continued attacking ships
Who was the War of 1812 between?
US and Great Britain
What were the main causes of the War of 1812?
1. Repeated violation of America's Neutrality (by GB)
2. Many people in America wanted to take Canada
3. It was believed that GB was stirring up trouble in regard to the Native Americans
What was the conflict with Native Americans called (Battle)?
Battle of Tippecanoe
What was Tippecanoe?
A river in present-day Indiana
Who led Americans in the Battle of Tippecanoe?
Govorner of Indiana Territory, William Harrison
Who was the Battle of Tippecanoe with?
Shawnee
Who was the Shawnee cheif?
Tecumseh
Where was Tecumseh when Harrison brought in his men?
Out of the village
Who was in charge while Tecumseh was gone?
His brother, The Prophet, AKA Tenskwatawa
Who won the Battle of Tippecanoe?
Harrison, he become a national hero
What are another names for the War of 1812?
2nd War for Independence
Mr. Madison's War
What were the 3 aspects of the War of 1812?
1. Washington, DC
2. Battle of Baltimore
3. Battle of New Orleans
What happened in Washington DC during the War of 1812?
It was burned to the ground by the British
Why was the burning of Washington DC significant?
Symbolically it meant a lot, strategically it wasnt' important. It was the only time in US history
In what battle was teh National Anthem composed?
Battle of Baltimore
Who wrote the words to the Star Spangled Banner?
Francis Scott Key
Who was captured by the British in the war of 1812?
Dr. William Beanes
Who went to negotiate with the British on the release of Beanes?
Francis Scott Key and a companion
What did the British do with Beanes and Key?
Let Beanes go, kept Key and his companion
What fort were the British going to attack in the Battle of Baltimore?
Fort McHenry
What was the original name of the Star Spangled Banner?
The Defense of Fort McHenry
What battle is considered the most famous battle of the War of 1812?
Battle of New Orleans
Why wasn't the Battle of New Orleans really in the War of 1812?
Technically the war was over but word had not arrived yet
Who won the Battle of Baltimore?
US
Who led the Battle of New Orleans?
Andrew Jackson
What sort of "crew" did Jackson work with?
"Motley Crew"
What's a "Motley crew"?
Just a bunch of guys
What groups aided Jackson in the Battle of Baltimore?
Pirates, Soldiers, native americans, freed slaves
Who was the Pirate leader in the Battle of Baltimore?
Jean Lafeyette
Who was the British leader in the Battle of Baltimore?
Edward Packingham
Who did the Battle of New Orleans make a national hero?
Andrew Jackson
What was Jackson's nickname and why?
"Old Hickory" - he was tough and strong
What treaty ended the War of 1812?
Treaty of Ghent
What was the resolve of the War of 1812?
A draw
What term describes the Treaty of Ghent? (Latin and meaning)
"Status quo ante bellum"
"The way things were before the war"
What territory was lost by both sides in the war of 1812?
None
What was the significance of the war of 1812?
1. We didn't lose to the British
2. Heightened American nationalism
What did the war of 1812 re-establish?
Independence
What is nationalism?
Feeling of oneness... patriotic pride
What is one speculated reason the US didn't lose the war of 1812?
British were at war with Napoleon in Europe
Who was president after the War of 1812 and under what party?
James Monroe, Republican
What was the time after the war of 1812 considered?
Era of Good Feelings
What were the 2 reasons for "good feelings"?
1. High Morale (We held them off!)
2. Time of political cooperation
Why was the Era of Good Feelings a time of political cooperation?
Federalists were obsolete
What is a free state?
A state in which slavery is illegal
What was the split up of the states before the Missouri compromise?
11 free states, 11 slave states
What was the representation in Senate for the states?
2 representatives per state
Who is known as the "Great Compromiser"?
Henry Clay
What was Henry Clay's position?
"Speaker of the House" -- Leader of the House of Representatives
What were the 3 parts of the Missouri Compromise?
1. Admit Missouri as a slave state
2. Admit Maine as a free state
3. Missouri Compromise line
What lattitude was the Missouri compromise line?
36*30*
In what territory was the Missouri compromise line?
Louisiana Territory
What issue did the Missouri Compromise put off?
Issue of Slavery
In what form was the Monroe Doctrine?
Speech before congress
What did the Monroe Doctrine say?
1. We WILL stay out of European Affairs (Eastern hemisphere)
2. Europe MUST stay out of the Western Hemisphere
What was the cultural movement after the Monroe Doctrine?
Transcendentalism
Who was the leader of transcendentalism?
Ralph Waldo Emerson
What essay/book was written by Emerson?
Nature
What does Transcend mean?
To rise above - acieve a spiritual state that transcends the physical body
What was Emerson's plan to Transcend?
1. Withdraw from Society (involvement with nature)
2. Against conformity
3. Emphasizing feelings/emotions
What was the emphasis on feelings a reaction to?
Englightenment, or "Age of Reason"
Who was the secodn writer of Transcendentalism?
Henry David Thoreau
What book did Thoreau write?
Walden
What inspired Walden?
2 years and 2 months living in the country by Walden Pond
What did "Walden" inspire the creation of?
Utopian Communities
What is a Utopian community?
Perfect society
What Utopian community was home to a great American writer?
Brook Farm
WHo started Brook Farm?
George Ripley, a minister
How did people live in Brook Farm?
Communally
What does it mean to live communally?
Equally share in the work and own everything equally
How long did it take for Brook Farm to fail?
6 years
To whom was Brook Farm home?
Nathaniel Hawthorne
What 2 books did Hathorne write?
1. The Scarlet Letter
2. The House of Seven Gables
What idea was presented in Hawthorne's two books?
It's a bad thing to be separated from society
What community was based on "selective breeding"?
Oneida community
WHere was the Oneida community located?
New York
Who founded the Oneida community?
John Humphrey Noyes
What were the 4 basic principles of the Oneida community?
1. Belief that people can attain perfection (sinlessness) on their own
2. Own everything together (communally)
3. Group marriage
4. Selective breeding
Of what religous group did the members of the Oneida community consider themselves?
Christian
What is the name for selective breeding?
Eugenics
What caused the Oneida community to dissolve, and how long did it last?
Noyes retired, 31 years
What church is the Mormon church?
CHurch of Jesus Christ and Latter Day Saints (LDS)
Who is the founder of Mormonism?
Joseph Smith
What did Smith claim?
He had a vision at the age of 14
What was Smith's trouble?
He couldn't decide what church to join
What did God the Father and the Son supposedly say to Smith when He appeared to him?
Not to join any church
Who visited Smith at the age of 18?
An angel, Moroni
What did Moroni tell Smith?
That Jesus had already returned to earth hundreds of years ago
Where did Moroni say Jesus lived on earth the second time?
America
Who else did Moroni say lived during Jesus' time?
The prophet Mormon
What did Moroni tell Smith to find?
Gold tablets with the Book of Mormon
Who transcribed the Book of Mormon?
The prophet Mormon
Why were Mormon communities rejected?
Probably because of their belief in polygamy
What is polygamy?
Men are allowed to have more than one wife
How/Where did Smith die?
He was killed in Illinois
Who was the New leader of LDS?
Brigham Young
What was Brigham Young known as?
"American Moses"
What heroic act did Brigham Young do?
Led 12,000 followers from Nebraska to Utah in about a year
What 2 things were not allowed for married women?
1. Owning property
2. Keeping her wages (unless her husband allowed)
What started the Women's Movement?
Seneca Falls Convention
Where was the convention held that started the Women's movement?
Seneca Falls, NY
Who were the 2 leaders of the Women's movement?
1. Lucretia Mott
2. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What did Mott and Stanton start out as?
Abolitionists
Where was the convention that conviced Mott and Stanton to put effort into women's rights?
London
The majority of people at the Seneca Falls Convention were ___________
Quakers
What document was written at the Seneca Falls convention?
Declaration of Sentiments
What was the model for the Delclaration of Sentiments?
Declaration of Independence
What was the success of the Seneca Falls convention?
Raised awareness of the mistreatment of women
Why were women so discriminated against?
Believed...
1. Women are dumber than men
2. A woman's place should be in the home