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61 Cards in this Set

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Sonata-Allegro Form
Drama between 2 key areas

99% of music in classical period

First movement form = Sonata Form

1st movement = longest & most highly stylized, characterized, & organized.
Sonata Cycle
Structured procedure for multimovement
Genre: Symphony, Concerto, Sonata, string quartet, etc.
Diatonic
7 tones of the major & minor scale
Chromatic
1/2 steps, semitones
Modulation
Change in key
Tonic
Built on 1st degree of scale
Dominant
Built on 5th degree of scale
Theme
Building block used in construction of musical composition; Melody

Smallest fraction of theme = motive
Motive
Fragmentation of theme, smallest part
Coda
Tail section, rounds off move
Schubert
Transisitional composer, 1797-1828
Absolute Music
Pure, no outside connotation, making form very important
Ex: No story, text, poem accompaniment
Bridge
Transistional section
Exposition
Statement, optional introduction, usually in Theme 1
Recapitulation
Restatement, usually in Theme 2
Codetta
Short coda
Minuet & Trio
Third movement, moderate, usually triple meter, ABA form

Mozart changed it to a scherzo
Scherzo
Composition in ABA form, usually triple meter; replaced minuet & trio in 19th century
Serenade
Between Chamber Music and Symphony

Main purpose is to entertain

AKA Divertomento
Vienna
Hub of musical entertainment
Enlightenment
Beginning of classical period, light, cheerful, enjoyment age; Sensibility
Classicism
Order, poise, serenity; Pertaining to highest degree of music, art, literature. Adherence to form/tradition of Greeks & Romans
Rondo
Most popular tempo in last move. Fast, allegro. Usually last move. Deviation of ABA
London Symphony
Joseph Haydn - 1 of 12 Symphonies
Development
Tension, excitement, modulation, motive, theme
Rocket Theme
Quick, aggressive, rising theme

Ex: Little night music (Serenade)
Another name for Classical Era
Golden age of Chamber Music
Favorite instrument of the Baroque Period
Violin
Favorite instrument of the Classical Period
Piano
Movements of Sonata
Sonata cycle
How many symphonies to Beethoven write?
9
How many symphonies did Mozart write
41
How many symphonies did Haydn write?
104
Diminutions
slower/shorter time values
Retrograde
Larger/longer time values; Melody backwards
Inversion
Melody upside down
Prince Esterhazy
Wealthy hungarian nobleman. Haydn worked for him (flourished) under the patronage system.
Concerto
Solo instrument (piano, violin) - classical period

Powerful & vibrant in classical period, 3 movements (unlike symphony).
-solo performer & orchestra
-Fast, slow, fast (3rd movement eliminated - moderate)
Salon
more intimate setting to play; Today = Concert Hall
Baroque = Terrace Dynamics
Classical = crescendo & minuendo + terrace dynamcis, due to advanced development of instruments.
N/A
Form was 99% of Classical Music; Absolute music
N/A
Sequence
Motive or theme developed in a higher or lower pitch level
Cadence
Resting place
Sonata
Means "to sound"
Instrumental genre for 1 or 2 performers, consisting of 3 or 4 movements; multimovement
Exposition
statement
4 Viennese Composers
Mozart
Haydn
Beethoven
Schubert
3 Revolutions having a great impact on the Classical Period
1)American
2)French
3)Industrial
Industrial achievments
Steam Engine - James Watt
Spinng Jenny - James Hargreave
Cotton Gin - Eli Whiney
Electricity - Ben Franklin
Oxygen - Joseph Priestly
Vaccination - Edward Jenner
Musician considered a little more then a servant
n/a
Classical Period = instumental now more popular then vocal
n/a
Chamber Music
Small ensemble, 1 to a part
God of Light & Measurement
Apollo
God of Passion & Intoxication
Dionysus
Classical = no restraint (emotional), adherence to form, structure; unlimited fortays/forms

Deceptively simple, very singable, but hard to conduct & play
n/a
Mozart:
1756 - 1791 (died age 35)
5 yrs old - Paris, Munich, London Tour
13 yrs old - read compositions of all genres
Wrote: Operas, concertos (piano), symphonies, string quartets, serenades/divertimentos, quintets

Master of all genres
dismissal from patronage system by Arch Bishop of Salesbury because he wouldn't follow his demands; Too many notes in section. Mozart answered, "it's perfect & was dismissed".
-became freelance artist
-Wife = Constance - alcoholic & wild
-all compositions #'d with K's for man who catalogued (Ludwig Koechel)
-Favorite Libbretist - Lorenzo DaPonte
-wrore 41 symphonies, all masterpieces
-no other composer surpassed his quickness to write music
-favorite instrument = piano (piano concertos)
-died penniless in a paupers grave
n/a
Patronage System
-do what Arch Bishop tells you to do
-adhere to rules & requirments such as:
clothing, no profanity & table
-Music teacher/conductor responsible for musicians
Symphony
One of the most important genres of the Classical Era
-Large ensemble consisting of 4 groups: strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion
Joseph Haydn 1732 - 1809 (died 77 yrs old)
-Born: Rohrau, Austria
-brought instrumental music to higher level in classical era
-Father = wheelmaker
-beautiful voice
-St. Steven Cathedral - 16 yrs. old
...voice broke
-freelance musician, composing, teaching, street band to make living
-1759 choir director, chamber music composer to a count
-Wife - 1760 Anna Keller, unhappy marriage for 40 years
-1761 - important position; Prince Esterhazy. Stayed 30 years with Prince. Flourised under patronage system
-thought of very highly @ time of death
-wrote 104 symphones, 67 String quartets, Oration "Creation", 2nd to Handels "Messiah", 14 masses, many operas
-monothematic - use of 1 theme
n/a
Ludwig Von Beethoven: 1770 - 1827 (57 yrs. old)
-Born in Bon, Germany
-supreme architect in music
-deeply effected by French Rev.
-freedom & dignity of individual
-alcoholic father
-man of the house for mother & younger brother @ an early age
-11-1/2 yrs. old - organist court chappel
-17 yrs. old - Vienna - played for Mozart
-favorite instrument: Piano
-Mozart knew Beethoven would be great
-24 yrs. old - studied with Haydn in Vienna; did not get along, but respected each other
-independent, high spirited temperment
-Aristocracy admired him
-forced nobility to see him as an equal/friend
-altercation with Prince.
-"What you are is thru accident of birth .....only 1 Beethoven"
-Rec'd money & gifts, made money playing piano, composing; had 6 - 7 publishers
-deafness in 40's, became profoundly deaf
-struggled with musician vs suicide
-expansionism; overlaps classical/romantic period, transitional
-music = happiness that life with-held from him
-man conquer chaos - epic theme of his music
-despair to conflict to serenity to triumph & joy
-prophet of 19th century: "Believe in my music = freedom from life misereies"
-small, stout 5'1", short-tempered
-4 note motive = whole symphony
-Symphony longer, orchestra larger (expansionism)
-1st movements: Expansion/development, much more involved
-3rd movement: minuet/trio to scherzo
-used tremendous dynamic contrast: huge fortays contrasting to piano, disordance
-incorporated in 9th symphony - chorus "Ode to Joy" - one of the first to do this)
-Early symphony 1 & 2 = very classical, later = very romantic
-5th & 9th Symphony most popluar
-3rd symphony = Eorica
-wrote 4 piano concertos, 1 opera (Fidelio), many string quartets, 30 piano sonatas (new testament) "moonlight sonata"
-symbol of people with handicaps
-5th Sym., motive returns again & again
-one of the 1st composers to use cyclial form (motive/theme used in more then one movement)
-10 sonatas = violin, 5 = cello
n/a
Cadenza
Fanciful solo passage played in style of improvisation
-piano alone, orchestra stops
Concertos are for ALL instruments
n/a