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30 Cards in this Set

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What were the geographic factors isolating China?
North: Gobi Desert (Mongol barbarians could cross it so they put up the Great Wall)
West: lots and lots of Mountains, plateaus and the Takla Makan Desert
East: Pacific Ocean
South: South China Sea, Vietnam Jungle, more Mountains.
What river in northern China is the birthplace of Shang Dynasty culture?
Yellow River (Huang He).
WHY did Chinese feel their culture was superior in medieval China?
The Mongolian Conquerors absorbed Chinese culture and became like the Chinese.
Kubla Khan, descendant of Mongolian invader Genghis Khan, painting Chinese dragons on his tent and adopted Chinese dress and customs.
What is the longest river in China (central China) and is currently undergoing a controversial dam project?
The Yangtze River (Chiang Jiang)
WHAT RIGHT DID THE EMPEROR HAVE TO RULE?
The Mandate of Heaven
A justification for why people should obey the emperor's authority. . . like European Divine Right Theory.
What is the capital of the People's Republic of China?
Beijing.
WHAT WERE THE GOALS OF THE FOLLOWING FIGURES IN CHINESE HISTORY?
1. Confucius
2. Lao Zi (Daoism founder)
3. Sun Yixian (Yat-sen)
4. Mao Zedong
1. social harmony, family loyalty, proper relation-ships/behavior of all members of society (rulers/ruled, parents/children, husbands/wives, etc.)
2. following the WAY (Dao) of nature - the yin and
yang. Society is corrupt - follow the way of nature.
3. Founder of China’s first, brief Chinese Republic. His THREE PRINCIPLES: Nationalism, Democracy, and Livelihood (Socialism)
4. loyalty to the communist state, an end to foreign imperialists controlling China, a classless society, land reform, etc.
Name two groups of "foreign" dynasties in China.
The Mongolians or YUAN DYNASTY.
The Manchus or QING DYNASTY.
Marco Polo met Kublai Khan during one dynasty. The other is the LAST DYNASTY.
WHAT EVENT SHOWED CHINA IT HAD FALLEN BEHIND THE WEST AND CAUSED IT TO LOSE CONTROL OF TRADE (was carved into spheres of influence)?
The Opium War.
1840-1842.
What British had to pay for Chinese goods with before the sale of Opium.
SILVER
Think Mercantilism.
What was the world's biggest civil war and involved a peasant rights group against the Manchu government 1850-1864?
THE TAIPING REBELLION.
It took the help of Western weapons to defeat this rebellion. The Manchus had to ask for Western aid and the West gave it only to keep Opium Sales going.
This was the 1900 secret society that attacked all foreigners living on Chinese soil.
The BOXER REBELLION.
The Manchus were found to have helped them and punished financially afterward.
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1911 IN CHINA?
The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty was overthrown. A power vaccuum followed, leaving many groups fighting for power.
4000 years of continuous government collapsed.
THE YEARS FROM 1911-1949 IN CHINA WERE A PERIOD OF ???
(a) peace; (b) economic improvement; (c) chaos or turmoil, with lots of political unrest/fighting
Uh - C (Chaos or turmoil)
Duh
The man who founded the Nationalist Party and was briefly President of China.
Dr. Sun Yixian (Sun Yatsen).
THE RED ARMY AND MAO ZEDONG'S POPULARITY AND SUPPORT CAME
MAINLY FROM WHAT GROUP?
Peasants, since he promised them land, equality, education, health care. Also, he instructed his men to treat the peasants kindly.
80% of Chinese population were this. 70% still are today.
Where did the Nationalist troops led by General Jiang Jieshi (Chiangkaishek) escape to in 1949?
Taiwan.
This island is called the "Republic of China" and Mainland China is mad that they haven't rejoined the mainland.
THE ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY OF CONFUCIANISM AND THE MODERN IDEALS OF COMMUNISM HAVE WHAT IN COMMON IN CHINA?
Both emphasize the harmony or good of the group over the individual (the group being the family to Confucius and the state to Mao). Both emphasize obeying authority (family in one, state in the other)
China has no experience in democracy.
The group that tookover China in 1949.
Communist Party.
COLLECTIVIZATION, FIVE YEAR PLANS, AND CENTRAL PLANNING BY THE GOVERNMENT ARE EXAMPLES OF WHAT ECONOMIC SYSTEM?
Command (communism is OK)
Also called "planned"
IDENTIFY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING EVENTS IN MAO ZEDONG'S LIFE:

THE LONG MARCH (1934-36)
THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD (1958-62)
THE LITTLE RED BOOK (QUOTATIONS OF CHAIRMAN MAO)
RED GUARDS (CULTURAL REVOLUTION 1966-69)
THE LONG MARCH: Mao Zedong and the Red Arm escape from the Nationalists and head west to the mountains. Their dangerous, often fatal trip became legendary and gained peasant support.
THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD: Mao's 2nd FIVE YEAR PLAN attempted to improve agriculture (forming state communes) and industry (backyard steel furnaces) This failed and caused mass starvation (1958-62)
THE LITTLE RED BOOK (QUOTATIONS OF CHAIRMAN MAO) Mao as a cult idol. Memorization of his sayings became mandatory during the time of the Culture Revolution in the 1960s. The RED GUARDS were teenage Communists who attacked any signs of Western decadence, capitalism, or old Confucian/ Buddhist ways.
WHAT TWO AREAS DID MAO TRY TO MODER-NIZE IN THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD of 1957?
AGRICULTURE (COMMUNES) AND INDUSTRY (BACKYARD STEEL FURNACES).
He took back the land he'd give to the peasants to form these mega state farms. He had peasants try to build these to industrialize China.
HOW DID WOMEN'S RIGHTS IMPROVE IN CHINA IN 1949?
Education, Health care, Jobs, Day care for parents, outlawing of footbinding, prostitution, etc. Divorce permissible.
One thing Mao did right???
AFTER MAO ZEDONG DIED IN 1976, WHAT GROUP CAME TO POWER?
Moderate communists such as Deng Xiaoping.
After a brief attempt by Mao's widow and three radical Shanghai politicians to seize power, this guy and more reasonable guys came to power by 1978.
HOW DID DENG XIAOPING CHANGE CHINA'S DIRECTION?
He opened China to more ideas and trade with the West (US, Europe, etc.);
He ended the Iron Rice Bowl (guaranteed jobs, pay)
He mixed some free market incentives into China's stagnant command economy.
He attempted to get China's population under control.
Think Market Reforms and a more mixed economy.
WHAT ARE SOME OF DENG'S CHANGES IN THE FOUR MODERNIZATIONS PROGRAM IN HIS EFFORT TO INCREASE ECONOMIC GROWTH?
Agriculture: broke up communes, gave peasants small plots that they could keep the profits of. Productivity went up, but too many peasants are trying to plant cash crops, exhaust the soil, etc.
Industry: the responsibility system stops the central planning of goals by the state and lets workers and managers make the decisions. They get bonuses for higher productivity.
Science/Technology: Studying Western science/tech at Western universities. Rewarding scientists with better pay, etc.
Defense: Fired l/3 of army for incompetence. Now promotions are based on ability, not memorization of communist dogma.
Goal was to catch up with the West by 2000 CE in four areas.
WHAT ARE THE REWARDS OF THE ONE-CHILD POLICY? WHAT ARE SOME PROBLEMS?
Rewards: extra cash, land, rice, meat rations
Problems: Parents want a son (family name, support them, do farm work, etc.) and female infanticide has continued.
This tiny capitalist island of skyscrapers and money was given back by the British to Communist China in 1997.
Hong Kong
It was taking by the British in the Treaty of Nanjing, one of the unequal treaties after the Opium War.
Population of China.
1.3 BILLION people
What large island off the coast of the China is called the "Republic of China" and is currently being threatened by the Communist Chinese government because it wants to be independent and not rejoin the mainland?
TAIWAN
Gen. Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek) and the Nationalists fled there in 1949 and set up an alternative government.