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54 Cards in this Set

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Trematode =
Cestode =
Schistosoma infects __1__ people and kills ~ __2__ annually
1. 200 M
2. 250,000
Schistosoma species that infect liver and gut


*released in feces
Schistosoma species that infects the bladder

*released in urine
Schistosoma Vector
Water snails with Larvae
How is Schistosoma acquired?
contact with FRESH WATER with infested SNAILS
Histology of Schistosoma Hematobium
Egg with Terminal spine in urine
Histology of Schistosoma Mansoni
Egg with LATERAL SPINE in feces
Histology of Schistosoma Japonicum
Egg with VESTIGIAL SPINE in feces

*has an eosinophilic halo
-form that seeks a snail: _1_
-form that emerges from snail and seeks human: _2_
-form that emerges inside humans: _3_
1. Miracidium
2. Cercarial larva
3. Schistosomula
Cercarial larvae mode of entry
Penetrate skin and cause "Swimmer's Itch" (inflammation)
Adult form of Schistosoma
Larger male with female in its groove
Complications of Schistosoma Hematobium
Hyrdoureter (dilated ureter)
Squamous cell CA of Bladder
Complications with Schistosoma Mansoni
-esophageal varices
-portal hypertension
-biliary obstruction
Ascites = fluid in peritoneal cavity

Fibrosis of Colon
Largest organisms (in size) of Helminths
Cestodes (Tapeworms)
2 life cycles of Cestodes

*which one is more dangerous?

3 parts of Adult tapeworms and their fxn's
1. Scolex = head that attaches to intestines

2. Neck = divide to form new Proglottids

3. Proglottids = body of Strobila which can detach that contain eggs and be passes in feces
How are humans infected with Taenia?
ingestion of undercooked Beef or Pork
How is Taenia diagnosed?
look for eggs or proglottids in the stool
What is Cysticercosis?
Taenia solium larvae form cysts in the BRAIN, Skeletal muscle, and EYE, heart
Explain How Taenia Solium end up in the brain in Cysticercosis
1. larvae ingested in undercooked pork
2. larvae mature in SI and oncospheres penetrate SI and enter bloodstream
3. Bloodstream takes T. solium to brain
4. Form cysticerci containing larvae
Most common symptom of Cysticercosis
Seizures in people who have traveled to tropical places
Echinococcus cycles between these animals

*definitive host
Type of cyst formed in Echinococcosis
Hydatid cyst
Morphology of mature Echinococcus
Scolex with THREE proglottids = small
Morphology of Scolex of Echinococcus
How is Echinocossus diagnosed?
by SEROLOGY as opposed to feces examination
Explain the treatment of Echinococcus
surgical removal of hydatid cysts can cause rupture

first inject cysts with ethanol to kill echinococcus
Filariasis/Elephantitis etiologic agents (2)
Wucheria bancrofti

Brugaria Malayi
Lymphatic filariasis is acquired via....
Pathology of elephantitis is related to _________
lymphatic obstruction
How is Lymphatic Filariasis diagnosed?
blood sample taken either at dawn or dusk b/c that is when the larvae emerge in the blood

*has to do with mosquitos feeding at these times and evolution
Explain the pathology of Wucheria bancrofti/Brugia malayi
1. mosquito bite releases Microfilariae into blood
2. larvae carried to lymph nodes in genitals and lower extremities
3. Larvae mature
4. adults mate and release larvae into bloodstream
5. adult worms trigger inflammation -> fever, swelling
6. repeated infections -> fibrosis -> lymphatic obstruction
How do you tell the difference between Brugia and Wucheria?
by counting the # of nuclei in the Microfilaria form
Oncocerca vector
Black fly (Simulium)
Clinical features of Onchocerca Volvulus
River Blindness
itchy "leopard" rash
Skin nodules
Oncocerca is one of the few success stories in.....
Tropical medicine
Merck has donated _______ for mass treatment of native population with Oncocerca Volvulus
Oncocerca volvulus nodules are made of what?
adults mating and releasing microfilariae
Schistosoma Hematobium
= Terminal spine
Specific parasite?
Schistosoma Mansoni egg = lateral spine

-Colon fibrosis
Specific parasite?
Schistosoma japonicum egg

*freshwater snails
Specific parasite?
1. Miracidium seeks snail
2. Cercarial larva emerges from snail and seeks human
3. Swimmer's itch
4. Schistosomula
Schistosoma Hematobium
Parasite that causes dilated ureter
Schistosoma Hematobium
Parasite that causes Bladder Metaplasia
Schistosoma mansoni/japonicum
Parasite that causes Cirrhosis and Ascites and is obtained from Snails
Schistosoma mansoni
Parasite that causes Fibrosis of Colon
Tapeworm Egg?
Taenia solium = Pork tapeworm


*most common causes of seizures from travel to tropics
Name of parasite that causes this?
What is syndrome called?
Echinocossus granulosus
What are these parasites?
Microfilarial worm
-Wucheria bancrofti
-Brugia malayi
Oncocerca volvulus
-River blindness
-Subcutaneous nodules