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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Nematodes =
Most intestinal worms cause little pathology, except that they may cause ______
Nematode that can often cause anemia
Hookworms = Necator Americanus
Nematode that may PROLIFERATE and disseminate in IC'ed host
Strongyloides Stercoralis
Trichinella is acquired from ________
undercooked pork
Adult Trichinella form in the __1__, produce ~__2__, then are passed in the feces
1. gut
2. 200 larvae
Trichinella larvae migrate into the __1__, where they produce __2__ and __3__
1. skeletal muscle
2. myalgia
3. Eosinophilia
-Reservoir in __1__
-__2__ ingested from uncooked meat
-larvae mature into adults in the __3__
-adults mate and eggs mature to larvae
-larvae penetrate intestinal wall into the __4__
-Larvae carried to __5__
1. Pigs (rodents, pig then eat rodents)
2. Encysted larvae
3. SI
4. bloodstream
5. Skeletal Muscle
Trichinellosis can present as this (other than myalgia)
Periorbital Edema with Conjunctivitis
Ascaris Lumbricoides:
-Adult worm length: 1
-Larvae hatch in the __2__, then migrate thru tissue to the __3__, are then __4__ and mature in the __5__
1. 10-14 inches
2. gut
3. lungs (via blood)
4. swallowed
5. Gut
Ascaris Lumbricoides __1__ are passed in the feces, where they may infect another human via __2__
1. eggs
2. fecal-oral
Rarely, Ascaris may cause these things
Obstruction of Colon, appendix, biliary tree
Ascaris larvae migration may induce ________
Eosinophilic Pneumonitis
Treatment for Ascaris
Mebendazole, Albendazole
Histology of Ascaris from stool specimen
Eggs have a rough surface (jagged)
Hookwork =
Necator Americanus
Necator Americanus transmission
entry of soil larvae through intact skin
Explain the life cycle of Necator Americanus
1. Larvae entry thru skin
2. Bloodstream -> lungs
3. Trachea migration -> swallowed
4. Mature in SI
Most common symptom of Necator Americanus
Anemia usually in children

*individual adult worm may drink .2 ml of blood per day
Degree of anemia by Necator Americanus depend on what?
# of adult worms due to how many you ingest (do not multiply)
Necator Americanus secretes ________
Anticoagulant to maintain blood flow
Secondary symptom due to Anemia from Necator Americanus
Pitting edema
Necator Americanus effect on heart?
Myoglobin resorption due to lack of Hemoglobin which can result in heart failure
What happens to Necator Americanus if the stool sample is not taken directly to the lab?
The larvae may hatch which might resemble Strongyloides
(refrigerate if not giving to lab immediately)
Trichuris Trichiuria =
Trichuris Trichiuria trasmission
Trichuriasis is common in these places of the world
Tropical and sub-tropical areas
# of people infected with Trichuriasis worldwide
500 million
Symptoms of Trichuris
Rectal Prolapse
Histology of Trichuris
Barrel-shaped eggs with Bipolar plugs
Strongyloides Stercoralis unique feature
only worm that multiplies in IC'ed host (all others to do multiply inside host) = Autoinfection

*immunity is what keeps these in check*
Common places for Strongyloides
SE Asia
Vietnam-era veterans
Transmission of Strongyloides
Fecal-cutaneous route (via feet usually)
Stool findings with Strongyloides
Larvae BUT NO eggs
Toxocara canis and cati can cause a syndrome called __________
Visceral Lavra Migrans = wander aimlessly ntil
Serology rates of Toxocariasis in humans
In toxocariasis, usually only the __1__ is affected, although the larvae can end up anywhere, causing __2__
1. eye
2. Eosinophilic pneumonia
Transmission of Toxocara
from handling dogs or cats and Larvae are ingested
Symptoms of Toxocara
Most common helminth in this part of the world
Necator Americanus
Most common helminth worldwide
Ascaris Lumbricoides
2 nematodes that are trasmitted Fecal-Cutaneously
Necator Americanus

Strongyloides Stercoralis
Trichinella spiralis
uncooked pork
What does it cause?
How is it transmitted?
Ascaris Lumbricoides
Parasite that causes Appendicitis?
Ascaris Lumbricoides
Parasite that causes Colonic Obstruction?
Ascaris Lumbricoides
Ascaris Lumbricoides
Parasite that causes Biliary Obstruction?
Ascaris Lumricoides
Parasite egg with Rough Edges
Necator Americanum
-inflammation at entry site
-pitting edema
-cardiac "tiger stripes" = myoblobin substituted for Hb
Necator Americanus
Parasite that causes resorption of Myoglobin due to low Hemoglobin?
Necator Americanus
Soil larvae -> feet
What does it cause?
How is it transmitted?
Trichuris Trichiuria
Strongyloides Stercoralis
Toxocara Canis
Parasite that causes "Visceral Larva Migrans" that either ends up in eye or Eosinophilic pneumonia