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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does Skeletal muscle use preferentially in fasting states?
Fatty acids.
Gluconeogenesis makes glucose from what substrates?
Lactic acid ( DUHHH), glyercol ( ehhh), alpha-ketoacids (wtf)
What happens in deficiency state of Vitamin A?
Night blindness, Skin disorders, Resorption of fetus, Growth retardation, Loss of taste.
What is the most toxic vitamin and what does it do at toxic level?
It is vitamin D and it will deposits Ca2+ in arteries and kidneys and very high doses increases cancer risk.
What vitamin can cause microcytic anemia upon deficiency?
Vitamin B6 booyahhh pyridoxine or pyridoxal.
Which vitamin deficiency causes seborrheic dermatitis?
Biotin, it would take 20 raw egg white ingestion to cause binding up of the biotin.
What activates Phosphofructokinase 1?
Insulin, AMP, and Fructose 2,6-P (which is made when there is excess fructose-6-p back up).
Where is glucose 6- phosphatase found for gluconeogenesis?
Liver and kidney.
What is the effect of steroids on glycolytic pathway?
It actually has an affect on gluconeogenesis causing hyperglycemia.
How does acyl CoA produce Acetyl CoA for TCA cycle?
Beta oxidation.
Purines/Pyrimidines excess inhibits what part of synthesis?
Going from Ribose-5-PO4 to Phosphoribosyl pryophoshate (PRPP)
ATP production overview simple?
Glycolysis to Krebs cycle to ETC
Pryuvate to Acetyl CoA is a decarboxylation....what enzyme does this?
Pyruvate DH
How many ATP's are yielded from ETC from breakdown of NADH and FADH2 for one glucose?
34 ATP
Acetyl CoA and NADH, and ATP inhibits what?
Pryuvate DH from taking Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Which hormone increases liver gluconeogenesis and glycogenesisi?
Coritsol
What is the anticodon?
3 adjacent nucleotides in tRNA that pair, in the opposite direction, with the mRNA codon (3'-5').
Which type of RNA is involved with the structure of ribosome?
rRNA
Which mRNA is polycistronic meaning that it can encode for multiple proteins. Verse the opposite which can only code for one protein?
Prokaryotic mRNA
What inhibits RNA polymerase II (eukaryotic)?
Alpha-amanitin( remember, a potent toxin from poison mushrooms and toadstools).
What brings exons into correct alignment for splicing?
Introns are excised and this happens with the help of small ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) which are made from Polymerase II
What is the function of Single stranded binding protein in DNA replication?
It keeps the single strand from re-annealing works after helicase.
What is the major DNA polymerase in bacteria?
It is polymerase 3----copies both parental strands, and only reads and copies parental strands in 3' to 5' direction. and has proofreading ability and 3' exonuclease activity to remove wrong nucleotides.