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180 Cards in this Set

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Endocrine glands are...
This system has ductless glands.
Neuroendocrine organ.
This is the hypothalamus because it has both neurological and endocrine functions.
The endocrine system includes these organs.
The pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testis are part of the _________ system.
Leptin.
This hormone is involved in food intake regulation.
This hormone is involved in food intake regulation.
Leptin.
Autocrine chemicals.
These exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them.
Paracrine chemicals.
These exert their effects locally on the surrounding cells.
Somatastatins are _______ chemicals.
Example of paracrine chemicals.
Prostaglandins are ______ chemicals.
Examples of autocrine chemicals.
The types of hormone bases.
1. Amino acid based
2. Eicosanoids
3. Steroids
These are the most common type of hormones.
Amino acid based hormones.
The only hormone of this type are produced by the gonadal and adrenocortical glands.
Steroid hormones.
These are lipid (arachodonic) based hormones that include leukotrines and prostaglandins.
Eicosanoids.
Leukotrines.
These eicosanoids are involved in inflamation and some allergic reactions.
Prostaglandins.
These effect BP, involved in birth, and enhance blood clotting and inflamation.
The actions produced by hormones in the target tissues.
1. Alters plasma membrane permeability, membrane potential, or both. Opens and closes ion channels.
2. Stimulates synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules.
3. Activates or deactivates enzymes.
4. Induces secretory activity.
5. Stimulates mitosis.
Amino-based hormones are ______ soluble. Steroids are ________ soluble.
______ hormones are water soluble. ______ are lipid soluble.
Water soluble hormones.
Amino-based hormones. Acts on receptors in the plasma membrane which are coupled to G-proteins. These initiate a variety of intracellular signaling cascades which involves secondary messangers.
Lipid soluble hormones.
These act on intracellular receptors. These directly modify gene transcription. These hormones are highly lipophilic and pass easily through the plasm membrane.
Lipid soluble hormone examples.
The thyoid and steriods are _____ hormones.
water soluble hormone examples.
______ hormones are amino acid based.
The hormones that use cAMP signaling.
Catecholamines, ACTH, FSH, LH, Glucagon, PTH, TSH, Calcitonin are use _________ signaling.
The hormones that use PIP-Calcium signaling.
Catecholamines, TRH, ADH, GnRH, and oxytocin use _________ signaling.
The only type of signaling that act intracellulary.
Steroid hormone signaling is the only type that acts __________.
These must be present for a hormone to have an effect.
Receptors.
Target cell activation depends on...
1. Blood lvls of hormones
2. Relative numbers of the receptors for that hormone available.
3. Strength (affinity) of the bond between the hormone and the receptor.
up-regulated receptors.
The cell produces more receptors.
Down-regulated receptors.
The cell produces less receptors.
Desensitized.
This happens to receptors with prolonged stimulation and results in loss of function.
Half-life.
The amount of time it takes for a chemical to decrease in half it's concentration.
This determines hormone levels in the blood.
1. The rate of hormone release.
2. The speed at which it is inactivated and/or degraded.
This type of hormone has the shortest half-life.
Water-soluble hormones have the shortest __________.
Three types of hormone interactions.
1. Permissiveness
2. Synergism
3. Antagonism
When one hormone cannot exert it's full effects without the presence of another hormone.
Permissiveness.
More then one hormone produce the same effect at a target tissue and they act to amplify eachother.
Synergism.
When one hormone opposes the actions of another hormone.
Antagonism.
Example of an antagonism hormone.
An example is insulin lowering blood glucose levels and glucagon raising blood glucose levels.
Example of synergism hormones.
Example is glucagon and epinephrine which both causing the liver to release glucose.
Example is glucagon and epinephrine which both causing the liver to release glucose.
Example of synergism hormones.
This feedback system controls hormones.
The negative feedback system controls ________.
The three types of stimuli that stimulate endocrine glands.
1. Hormonal
2. Humoral
3. Neural
Humoral Stimuli.
These stimuli are alterations in blood levels of critical ions and nutrients.
Hormonal Stimuli.
This stimuli involves other hormones stimlating the release of more hormones.
Neural Stimuli.
The stimuli involves the SNS causing the release of NE and Epi from the adrenal medulla in response to stress.
An example of Hormonal stimuli.
The anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hormones from the hypothalamus is an example of what stimuli.
An example of Humoral stimuli.
An example of this stimuli is when Ca2+ lvls decline and the parathyroid gland secretes PTH to act on bones and release more Ca2+.
Normal BLood glucose levels.
90-110 mg/dL.
Stress causes blood glucose levels to _____ for fuel.
____ causes blood glucose levels to rise for fuel.
The Cylcic AMP Signaling Mechanism. (steps 1 and 2)
The hormone binds to it's receptor. Binding of the ligand to the receptor changes it's shape and activates it's G-protein. GDP is displaced with GTP.
The types of hormone signaling mechanisms.
1. cAMP
2. PIP-Calcium Signaling
The roles of GDP and GTP in the cAMP signaling.
GTP=ON
GDP=OFF
The Cyclic AMP Signaling Mechanism. (steps 3 and 4)
Adenylate cyclase is either stimulate (Gs) or Inhibitory (Gi) depending on the receptor and the G-protein. G-proteins hydrolyze GTP back to GDP. If activated, the adenylate cyclase generates the second messenger cAMP from ATP.
The Cyclic AMP Signaling Mechanism. (steps 5)
cAMP triggers a cascade of chemical reactions beginning with activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA).
Protein Kinase A (PKA).
This is found in the last step of cAMP signaling and is activated by cAMP. It attaches a phosphate group to other protein sites (phosphorylation) to create other reactions.
The amplification signaling system.
cAMP is known as the __________ system.
The ways to turn of cAMP signaling.
1. Turn of the G-protein with GDP/GTP exchange.
2. cAMP is rapidly degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.
3. Phosphatase removes the phosphate group from proteins to turn off kinases and their targets.
Phosphatase.
This is used to turn of cAMP. It dephosphorylates Kinases and their target cells.
Phosphodiesterase.
This intracellular enzyme rapidly degrades cAMP.
In this system, binding of a ligand to the receptor causes the G-protein to use Ca2+ as an intracellular signaling molecule.
PIP-Calcium Signaling.
The PIP-Calcium Signaling system. (steps 1 and 2)
The hormone binds to it's receptor causing conformational change. The receptor activates the G-protein and GDP is exchanged GTP.
The PIP-Calcium Signaling system. (steps 3 and 4)
The activated G-protein (Gq) then binds to and activates phospholipase C (PLC). PLC splits the plasma membrane protein PIP2 into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3).
The PIP-Calcium Signaling system. (steps 5 and 6)
After PIP2 is split, DAG activates protein Kinase C (PKC) and the IP3 triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in the ER. Ca2+ then interacts with other proteins like eNOS and calmodulin. May activate plasma membrane Ca2+ channels.
Hormone Signlaing Mechanism.
Hormone enters the cell and binds to it's receptor. The receptor dimerizes (disassociates with it's chaperone proteins) and translocates to the nucleus. The activates receptor complex binds to response elements in the DNA. It effects gene transcription which effects levels of protein expression.
Posterior Pituitary.
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. These are made in the hypothalamus however
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.
A bundle of nerves that connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary.
The connection of the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.
There is no nerve connection, but there is a vascular connection called the hypophyseal portal system between these to organs.
Hypophyseal portal system.
The vascular connection between the anteriory pituitary and the hypothalamus.
This pituitary lobe is faster.
The _____ pituitary is faster because it has neural connections.
Adrenohypophyseal hormones.
The _________ secretes POMC. This is cleaved to produce MSH, beta endorphins, and enkephalin.
POMC.
pre-opiomelanocortin. a prohormone. cleaved into melanocyte stimulating hormone, endorphines, and enkephalin.
The hormones of the anterior pituitary.
The ______ secretes POMC (preopiomelanocortin), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), and growth hormone (GH).
Growth Hormone.
Produced by somatotrophins in the anterior pituitary. Targets skeletal bones and muscles. Anabolic hormone.
IGF.
Inslulin like growth factor regulates GH.
1. stimulates uptake of amino acids.
2. stimulates uptake of sulfur into cartilage.
The two hormones that regulate GH.
GHRH and GHIH.
Gigantism.
Caused by a hypersecretion of GH in children whose epiphyseal plates have not fused.
Acromegaly.
An overgrowth of the hands and feet due to a hypersecretion of GH. Usually due to tumor.
Pituitary dwarfism.
Caused by hyposecretion of GH. Children grow to be 4 foot but are normal proportioned. If detected before puberty it can be treated with synthetic GH.
Effects of GH when taken and not needed.
Causes cancer, diabetes, cancer, joint and musce pain, and fluid retention.
TSH.
Thyroid Stimulating hormone controls thyroid secretions. made by thyrotrophs in anteriory pituitary and it's release is controlled by TRH.
TRH.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is a hypothalamic peptide that signals when thyrotrophs will release TSH.
ACTH.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is also called corticotropin. It is secreted by corticotrophs of the adenohypophysis. It stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteriod hormones like glucocorticoids.
Glucocorticoids.
These help the body deal with stress and are released by the adrenal cortex when it is signaled by ACTH.
CRH.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of ACTH from the corticotrophs of the adenohypophysis.
Inhibition of ACTH.
When blood levels of glucocoricoids get high that feedback and block CRH, which then stops ACTH release.
Gonadotropins.
LH and FSH.
LH.
Luteinizing hormone is a gonadotropin that promotes production of estrogen and testosterone. Works with FH in females and alone triggers ovulation. Not seen until puberty.
FSH.
Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates gamete production. stimulated by the GnRH.
GnRH.
Released from the hypothalamus and triggers to release of FSH and LH found in the adenohypophysis.
PRL.
Prolactin stimulates milk production in females. It's release is controlled by PIH (dopamine) and PRH.
PRH.
Prolactin releasing hormone triggers the release of prolactin and rises near the end of pregnancy and continues as long as the mother is nursing.
Hypersecretion of prolactin.
Causes infertility and inappropriate lactation in females, and breast enlargement and infertility in males.
The Posterior Pituitary.
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH that have been made by the hypothalamus.
Oxytocin.
Made in the hypothalamus but released from the posterior pituitary. stimulates contraction of smooth muscle. Reflex in nursing mothers. Promotes bonding and affectionate and nuturing behavior.
Pitocin.
A synthetic oxytocin to induce or accelerate labor. Used to stop post partum bleeding.
ADH.
Produced by the hypothalamus but stored and released from the posterior pituitary. Prevents swings in water balance and dehydration.
Stimuli for ADH.
Osmoreceptors monitor solute in blood volume and if it gets too high they signal ADH release which then removes urine from the body and replaces it in the blood stream to increase volume. Also ADH is stimulated by pain, high BP, nicotine, morphine, and barbiturates.
Vasopressin.
This is a diuretic hormone that causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels and increases urine output.
Diabetes Insipidus.
Marked by large amounts of urine output and intense thirst. Caused by a lack of ADH. Can be caused by a blow to the head that damages the hypothalamus or posterior pituitary.
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion.
Occurs in children with meningitis. May follow neurosurgury, hypothalamic injury, or caused by cancer cells. Marked by fluid retention, headache, disorientation, weight gain, and hypoosmolarity.
Thyroid gland.
Highly vascularized. Largest endocrine gland. Inside is composed of spherical folllicles that produce gycoprotein thyroglobulin and the central folllicles store colloid.
Colloid.
Found in the central cavity of the throid. They are thyroglobulin molecules and attached iodine atoms which help make TH.
TH.
Thyroid hormone is two iodine-containing amine hormones (T3 and T4).
T3.
Triiodothyronin is formed at the target tissues by conversion of T4 to T3.
T4.
Thyroixine is the major hormone secreted by htyroid follicles.
TBGs.
Thyroxine-binding globulins transport T3 and T4 and is produced by the liver.
TRH.
Thyrotropin releasing hormone is stumlated by conditions that require a lot of energy such as pregnancy. It stimulates the release of more TSH release.
Endemic goiter.
The gland grows trying to produce more TH due to TSH stimulation but it cant since there is no iodine. The gland will burn out and become nonfunctional. Treated with iodine supplementation.
Cretinism.
Severe hypothyroidism in infants. The child is mentally retarded and has short disproportionate body size with a thick neck and tongue. Can be treated if caught early enough. Usually due to genetic lack maternally insufficient diet.
Myxedema.
Full-blown hypothyroidism in adults.
Calcitonin.
A peptide hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. Targets the skeleton where it inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates the uptake os calcium into bones (bone sparing).
Parathyroid gland.
There are usually four of these small yellow-brown glands on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
PTH.
Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid hormone. PTH release is triggered by falling blood calcium levels. It increases osteoclast activity to release calcium from bones and also cause reabsorption of calcium from the digestive tract and Ca absorption in the kidneys.
Hyperparathyroidism.
Rare. Usually from a tumor. The minerals get leached out of bones and replaced by connnective tissues. Causes a moth eaten appearence. Leads to hypercalcemia.
Hypercalcemia.
Caused by hyperparathyroidism and leads to depression of the nervous system and kidney stones.
Hypoparathyroidism.
Caused by trauma to the parathyroid or it's removal during surgery or deficiency of magnesium. Causes over excitability of neurons, tetany, loss of sensation, muscle twitches, conculsions, paralysis, and death.
The Adrenal glands.
Paired, pyramid shaped glands above each kidney. They have a medulla and a cortex.
Adrenal medulla.
The knot of nervous tissue in the adrenal medulla thats part of the sympathetic system.
Adrenal cortex.
This part of the adrenal gland encapsules the medulla, makes up most of the gland, is glandular, and derived from mesoderm.
Steroid hormone are not stored like other hormones but synthesized by these zones.
1. Zona Glomerulosa
2. Zona Fasciculata
3. Zona Reticularis
Zona Glomerulosa.
This produces mineralcorticoids involved in mineral and water balance.
Zona Fasciculata.
This zone produces metabolic hormones called glucocorticoids.
Zona Reticularis.
This zone produces small amounts of gonadocorticoids (estrogen and testosterone).
The hormones that regulate electrolyte (mineral salt) concentration and water. Produced by the zona glomerulosa.
Mineralocorticoids.
The most potent mineralocorticoid that makes up 95% of those produces.
Aldosterone.
DOCA.
Deoxycorticosterone acetate is a synthetic mineralocorticoid.
Aldosterone action.
This mineralcorticoid acts on the synthesis of Na+ transporters. Alterations in Na+ handling effect fluid balance and blood pressure.
The major pathways of Aldosterone regulation.
1. The renin-angiotensin mechanism.
2. Plasma concentrations of potassium and sodium ions.
3. ACTH
4. ANP
The renin-angiotensin mechanism.
This is a regulation pathway of aldosterone release, blood volume, and BP. The juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys is triggered by a drop in the blood volume and releases renin which cleaves the protein angioteninogen into angiotensin I. Angiotensin I goes to the lungs by circulation to be cleaved into ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme.
Angioteninogen is cleaved by ________ into Angiotensin I, which is then cleaved by _______ into ANG II. This acts on the _____ receptor.
______ is cleaved by renin into ______, which is then cleaved by the angiotensin converting enzyme of the lungs into ______. This acts at the AT1 receptor.
______ is cleaved by renin into ______, which is then cleaved by the angiotensin converting enzyme of the lungs into ______. This acts at the AT1 receptor.
Angioteninogen is cleaved by ________ into Angiotensin I, which is then cleaved by _______ into ANG II. This acts on the _____ receptor.
Plasma levels of K+ and Na+ Aldosterone regulation.
Levels of K+ and Na+ directly effect the zona glomerulosa. Increased levels of K+ stimulate aldo secretion. Decreased levels of K+ inhibit aldo secretion. Larger decreases of Na+ stimulate a mild increase of aldo levels.
______ levels of K+ inhibit Aldo release. ______ levels of K+ stimulate Aldo release.
decreased levels of K+ ______ Aldo release. Increased levels of K+ _______ Aldo release.
decreased levels of K+ ______ Aldo release. Increased levels of K+ _______ Aldo release.
______ levels of K+ inhibit Aldo release. ______ levels of K+ stimulate Aldo release.
Large decreases in Na+ stimulate a mild ______ in aldosterone.
Large _________ in Na+ stimulate a mild increase in aldosterone.
Large _________ in Na+ stimulate a mild increase in aldosterone.
Large decreases in Na+ stimulate a mild ______ in aldosterone.
ACTH in regulation of Aldosterone.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone has only effect aldo levels under severe stress, which causes CRH to be released and more ACTH to release, which leads to a small increase of aldosterone.
ANP regulation of aldosterone.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide is secreted by the heart when BP rises. It inhibits the RAS system and blocks aldosterone. It also stimulates natriuretic and diuresis.
This system inhibits the RAS to lower BP.`
The ANP inhibits this system to lower BP.
Aldosteronism.
A hypersecretion of aldosterone from a tumor. You see hypertension from water retension and excess Na+. Also there is an accelerated release of K+. This causes nervous system depression, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, paralysis, and death.
Aldosterones effect on K+ and Na+.
This mineralocorticoid lowers K+ levels and raises Na+ levels.
Addisons's disease.
A hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. Symptoms include weight loss, lower Na+ levels, higher K+ levels, dehydration, and hypotension. Treatment includes synthetic hormone replacement.
Glucocorticoids.
These are made in the Zona Fasciculata. They influence energy metabolism and help the body cope with stress, maintain blood glucose levels, BP, ect.
The hormones that are glucocorticoids.
The hormones cortisol, cortison, and corticosterone are glucocorticoids.
The major glucocorticoid is _____ and is secreted by the stimulation of _______.
Cortisol is secreted by stimulation of ACTH and is the major _________.
Effects of stress.
This causes a rise in blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids via cortisol.
Gluconeogenesis.
This is the formation of energy from other sources and is triggered by cortisol.
Cortisol enhances these effects of epinephrine.
The Epi effects of vasoconstrion to increase blood pressure and deliver nutrients to the cells faster is enhance by this glucocorticoid.
The Epi effects of vasoconstrion to increase blood pressure and deliver nutrients to the cells faster is enhance by this glucocorticoid.
Cortisol inhances these Epi effects.
Too much cortisol causes this.
Bone and Cartilage formation depression, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, loss of vasodialators, and immune system depression is caused by too much of this.
Bone and Cartilage formation depression, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, loss of vasodialators, and immune system depression is caused by too much of this.
Too much cortisol causes this.
Glucocorticoids are used to treat patients with ________.
__________ are used to treat patients with autoimmune disorders.
Cushing's Syndrome.
This is an excessive level of glucocorticoids characterized by hyperglycemia, dramatic loss of bone and muscle protein, salt and water retention, hypertenion, edema, moon face, buffalo hump, bruising, and poor wound healing.
Cause of Cushing's syndrome.
This disease is usually caused by bad drug dosing, ACTH-releasing pituitary tumor, tumor of the adrenal cortex, act.
Adrenal Medulla.
Made up of modified ganglionic neurons that make NE and Epi. Mostly Epi. They act on adrenergic receptors.
Catacholamines.
A brief response stimuli in the adrenal medulla involved in fight or flight reflexes. Epi and NE.
Pheochromacytoma.
A chromaffin cell tumor in the adrenal medulla that causes hypersecretion of catacholamines.
Symptoms and treatment of Pheochromocytoma.
Symptoms: Hyperglycemia, increased metabolic rate, increased heart rate, hypertension, palpitations, intense nervousness, and sweating.
Treatment: Pharmacological inhibition of the adrenergic receptors is the short term treatment. Long term treatment involves surgery.
The pancreas.
This gland has both endocrine and exocrine parts and is found in the abdomen.
Acinar cells.
These make up the majority of the pancreas mass and secrete enzymes into the small intestine to help digestion.
Islet of Langerhans. (pancreatic islets)
These are tiny clusters of cells that produce glucagon or insulin.
alpha-cells.
The cells that produce glucagon.
beta-cells.
The cells that produce insulin.
Glucagon.
This is a 29 amino acid polypeptide that is an extremely potent hyperglycemia agent.
Glucagon's effect on liver.
1. Breakdown of glycogon to glucose (glycogenolysis).
2. Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and non-carbs molecules (gluconeogenesis).
3. Release of glucose into the blood stream by liver cells.
Glucagon.
This raises blood glucose levels.
Insulin.
A small 51 amino acids protein that is made up of 2 chains linked by a disulfide bond. It is made as proinsulin and midified before secretion.
Insulin effects.
1. Increases glucose uptake.
2. Prevents conversion of glycogen into glucose.
3. Stimulates conversion of glucose into fat.
4. It catalyzes the oxidation of glucose for ATP production.
5. Stimlates uptake of a.a. and protein synthesis in muscles.
Short-term Stress response...
Stress causes the SNS to release catecholamines (NE and Epi). These result in increased HR, Inreased BP, liver converts glycogen to glucose and release it into the blood, dialation of bronchioles, changes blood flow patterns to decrease digestion and urine output, and increases metabolic rate.
Long-term Stress respone...
Stress triggers the hypothalamus to release CRH which stimulates the release of ACTH from corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. ACTH released mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex leading to: Retenetion of Na+ and water by kidneys, increased BV and BP, Proteins and fats are converted to glucose or broken down for energy, increased blood glucose, and suppressed immune system.
Explain the blood glucose regulation when blood glucose levels are low.
Declining blood glucose levels trigger the pancrease to release glucagon from the alpha-cells. Glucagon stimulates the liver to breakdown glycogen into glucose. Blood glucose levels rise to normal.
Explain the blood glucose regulation when blood glucose levels are high.
Blood glucose levels rise. The pancrease releases insulin from beta-cells. Insulin stimulates glycogen formation from glucose and the liver. It also stimulates glucose uptake by tissue cells. Blood glucose levels fall to normal range.
Diabetes Mellitus.
Caused by a hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin. Characterized by very high blood glucose levels.
Diagnosing diabetes.
To diagnose you test glucouria or bloos glucose levels.
Ketoacidosis.
This may be a result from diabetes because of high blood glucose levels. Ketones can be seen in the urine and the blood pH level drops. Leads to disruptions in heart activity, oxygen transport, nervous system depression leading to coma or death.
The Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus.
1. Polyuria
2. Polydipsia
3. Polyphagia
Polydipsia.
Excess thirst form dehydration.
Polyuria.
Huge urine output due to glucose in the urine pulling water from the body which leads to dehydration, hypotension, and electrolyte imbalance.
Polyphagia.
Excess hunger and food consumption.
Diabetes retinopathy.
A complication of diabetes that causes blindness.
Nephropathy and Neuropathy.
Kidney and nerve disease caused by diabetes that leads to amputations and kidney failure leading to death.