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58 Cards in this Set

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How much essential fat do females have?
12%
How much essential fat do males have?
3%
what is lean body mass?
all of the non-fat tissues of the body: skeleton, muscle, waters, connective tissue, organ tissues, teeth
define body mass
fat mass plus lean body mass
what is subcutaneous fat?
storage fat. accumulates in adipose tissue. used for energy supply.
Describe Archimedes principle in relation to underwater weighing
Archimedes principle = object submerged in water buoyed by a “force” = the volume of water displaced. Volume of water displaced = weight of water displaced by object immersed in the water. By using archimedes principle, we can effectively figure out an important biometric: body density.
When determining percent body fat using underwater weighing methods, why does the residual volume of the lung have to be measured?
Air in the lungs will account for a portion of the displacement factor of the water, and if not accounted for, would be included in the volume displacement measurement, thus rendering an inaccurate calculation of overall body density.
What is obesity and list the health risks of obesity.
Obesity is excess adiposity, or too much “storage fat” in the body. It is associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease, adult onset diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and psychological disorders.
Compare and contrast growth in boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16 years.
onset earlier in girls 10 – 11 (12-13 in boys)duration – similarpeak velocity males higher (10cm/yr) (vs. 8cm/yr females)overall height gain greater in males – mostly in trunkgirls reach 98% of height by 15.5 vs. 17: boys.overall weight gain larger in malesmales have an additional 2 yrs of growth once females have stopped, generally end up larger, with longer legs
what is essential fat?
fat required for normal physiological functioning. Found in bone marrow, heart, lungs, spleen, intestines, muscles, and CNS. is required for structural components, cell membranes, and for transport of vitamins. In females, includes sex specific fat in breasts, pelvis and thighs.
compare and contrast three methods of determining body composition, in terms of ease of measurement, cost, assumptions made, and error of measurement.
underwater weighing: not easy, expensive, assumes correct calculations and corrections for temp and lung volume, most accurate. Anthropometric skinfolds - easy, cheap, based on assumption that subcutaneous regional measurements indicate overall composition, assumes correct measuring techniques, errors: must use compatible population to measure against, calipers must be accurate, doesn't work well for skinny or obese, range of calculations introduce errors. BMI - simple calculation based on height and mass, easiest, free to do, assumes relationship between weight,height, body composition. accuracy not known.
what is "fat free mass?"
bone, muscle, vital organs and connective tissue.
use of somatotyping versus maturational indices in phys. ed.
use of maturational indices better than somatotyping or age divisions - gives more accurate representation of where individuals are at in development - more fair in sports.
five major factors that effect growth and maturation of children
nutrition, secular trends, climate, genetics, racial differences.
Is menarche related to climate?
No. in developing countries, menarche happens later because of poor nutrition, not hot climate.
what is the cephalocaudal growth pattern?
where growth occurs first in head, then gradually proceeds down neck, shoulders, trunk.
what is a proximodistal growth pattern?
growth from centre of body to extremities.
Explain why individuals low in mesomorphy are seldom successful in athletic endeavors.
very little somatotypical variation among elite athletes. champion athletes both born and made. Individuals low in mesomorphy may be either too endomorphic – too slow and awkward, or too ectomorphic – fragile and weak, to be well suited to athletics.
what are the three main structural components of the human body?
muscle, fat, and bone.
Distinguish between “male type” and “female type” obesity.
male type: excess fat deposited on upper torso and around abdomen – associated with greater risk of heart disease.female type: excess fat deposited below the waist in thighs, hips, and buttocks.
differences in peak height velocity between boys and girls
boys onset of growth spurt is later, however peak velocity is greater (grow faster and more during spurt).
what is puberty
time of greatest sexual differentiation.
what are the five main indices of maturity?
radiological (bone age), dental age (deciduous dentition eruption and changes), growth curves (timing of peak height and weight velocities), sexual age (onset of puberty - development of 2ndary sex characteristics), neural age (differences in neural development - walking, speech, fine motor skills)
what are four ways of measuring size?
linear measurements, volume, mass, surface area.
proportion
relative sizes of body parts. certain sports have proportionality patterns. (runners-slim hips.)
what is growth?
progressive development from earliest stage to maturity, including increases in size, and differentiation of body parts to perform different functions. (sexual maturation.)
what are the five basic human growth stages?
neonatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood.
what is longitudinal data?
data from one individual or group of individuals over time to plot growth over time.
what is cross sectional data
measurements from a cross section of ages of the population to form a cross sectional picture of the various groups at the time of the study.
what is the most important difference between boys and girls in maturity?
rate at which they mature. Girls on average 50% faster.
what is strength?
ability to exert maximal force in one effort.
what is peak velocity?
Highest point in a growth spurt.
what are the somatotype conclusions reached by carter?
1.both growth & training effect somatotype. 2. somatotype ranges smaller at higher levels of competition, 3. training can effect change, but not beyond genetic limits.
each sport has specific physical pre-reqs for success.
what is flexibility
capacity of a joint to move through a normal range of motion.
what is isometric strength?
maximal force against a fixed resistance during one all-out contraction: static strength.
what is isotonic strength?
dynamic strength: amount of resistance one can overcome during one application of force through a full range of motion (i.e. arm curl).
what is the basic premise behind sheldon's somatotyping?
structure precedes function.
what is a motor ability?
ability to carry out specific motor tasks.
what are four motor abilities?
balance, power, agility, speed.
balance means
maintaining equilibrium
power definition
apply a great amount of force in a short time period to obtain optimal result.
agility
ability to change direction quickly and effectively at full speed.
reaction time
speed of initiation of response to stimuli.
coordination
smooth flow of movement in executing motor tasks.
four characteristics of "good" fitness test
validity, reliability (objectivity), norms (standards), economy.
what is reliability and how can it be measured?
degree of consistency with which a measuring device may be applied. A highly reliable test will yeild same results every time with same individuals under same conditions.
what is the difference between a norm and a standard?
a norm is the present condition of a wide sample of population. The standard represents the ideal condition.
why calibrate?
assures *meaningful* measurements: ability to determine *consistent* *true* measurements within the *sensitivity range* of instrument.
endomorphy
roundness/fatness of physique, central mass concentration, relaxed posture, slow reaction.
mesomorphy
musculoskeletal development, heavy, hard, rectangular, well muscled, strong, firm, sturdy, upright, tough.
ectomorphy
linear, fragile, slender, frail, small bones
what are the temperaments associated with the somatotypes?
endomorphy=viscerotonia
mesomorphy=somatotonia
ectomorphy=cerebrotonia
what are five components of fitness?
cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition
what is cardiorespiratory capacity?
aerobic power - usually involves large muscles of the body, forces circulatory and respiratory system to function efficiently.
define fitness
ability to carry out daily activities with vigour, not exhaustion. Extra energy for coping with unforseen emergencies, and enjoy leisure time.
Describe how you would use BMI, SOS, WHR, and SOTS to determine fat distribution in humans
The Body mass index, sum of five skinfolds, waist to hip ration, and sum of two trunk skinfolds are used in combination with each other in order to determine the distribution of body fat on the trunk area, versus the limbs. While the body mass index will provide a general guideline that may indicate whether an individual is within a healthy body mass range, it is necessary to determine the fat distribution in order tohave a more accurate interpretation of the body composition (and relative health of the subject).If LOW BMI --> check SOS --> if high SOS, too little fat is not indicated, so less health risk.If LOW BMI --> check SOS --> if low SOS, too little fat is indicated, so higher health risk.If High BMI --> check SOS --> if low SOS, additional mass probably not from fat, so less health risk. If High BMI --> check SOS --> if high SOS, additional mass is from fat, so higher health risk.If both High BMI and High SOS –-> consider both WHR and SOTS to determine if pattern of fat distribution is associated with additional health risk.If High WHR and SOTS, evern without high BMI and SOTS, still indicates excessive trunk adiposity, and higher risk zone.Lastly, important to combine these with a visual assessment and common sense.
what is the difference between a distance growth curve and a velocity growth curve?
distance plots measurements taken at intervals plotted against time to graph growth progress. velocity plots increments of growth plotted against time to show the variation in rate of growth over time.
Equations which have been developed to determine percent body fat using underwater weighing techniques make two basic assumptions. What are these assumptions and what is wrong with them?
The basic assumption is that body density is a constant which may be measured at 1.100g/cm3. However, this varies depending on age, gender, ethnicity, fitness, water content, bone density etc. It also assumes that the readings will be done correctly, as will the calculations. Both of these assumptions can introduce errors that will make the results of the testing invalid or inaccurate.