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10 Cards in this Set

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Singlet oxygen will react instantly with whatever it encounters. Typically, it reacts with ?? to form ?? (p395)
Lipid --> Lipid Peroxide
Homolytic cleavage of hydrogen peroxide forms what? In the presence of Fe2+, it forms:
Two hydroxyl radicals. In the presence of Fe2+, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydroxyl radical (OH*)
see pg 396 for Hydroxyl Radical damage mechanism
see pg 396 for Hydroxyl Radical damage mechanism
Hydrogen peroxide is destroyed in two ways: name the enzymes and where they're located.
Catalase - located in peroxisomes with a high Km
Glutathione peroxidase - located in cytosol with a low Km
What unique atom is in Glutathione Peroxidase?
Selenium
What is the most prevalent antioxidant? It's a tripeptide made of what?
Glutathione (GSH). It is composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine
As you know, GSH is composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. Cysteine constantly needs to be replenished, however...why?
Bc it in detox of xenobiotics, cysteine is attached to the xenobiotic - glutamate and glycine are released and the cysteine/xenobiotic complex is released in the urine.
In what form is GSH ready to eliminate a oxidative stress? GSH or GSSH? What regenerates the reduced form?
GSH is oxidized to GSSH. GSH is regenerated with NADPH
Damaged Proteins and mRNAs are typically degraded rather than being repaired. The two exceptions are:
1. GSH reduces protein disulfides back to dithiols.
2. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase uses NADPH to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine.
Know what Oxygen Enhancement Ratio means:
It is the ratio of the radiation dose needed to kill a fixed percentage of cells in an anoxic (anaerobic) environment to the radiation dose needed to kill the same percentage of cells in an oxygenated environment.