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55 Cards in this Set

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From superificial to deep, what are the four layers of the epidermis? What do these layers sit on top of?
1. Stratum Corneum
2. Stratum Granulosum
3. Stratum Spinosum
4. Stratum Basale
These all sit on top of the dermis.
This epi layer has a single layer of cuboidal cells called keratinocytes that undergo mitosis to giver rise to all cells above it.
Stratum Basale
This epi layer is characterized by cells that are connect by desmosomes. Also, it is thicker in skin that is subject to abbrasion and pressure.
Stratum Spinosum
This epi layer is characterized by dense granules of Karatohyalin - they are the site of Filagrin synthesize. Filagrin interact with keratin filaments to aggregate.
Stratum Granulosum
A. Stratum Spinosum
B. Stratum Granulosum
C. Stratum Basale
D. Dermis
This layer of epi is composed of flat, dead cells packed with eosinophilic keratin intermediates.
Stratum Corneum
What is Psoriasis?
IT is a hyperprofliferation of keratinocytes such that the epidermis is twice as thick.
What is the length of the cell cycle in Psoriasis? What is it normally?
Psoriasis keratinocyte cell cycle length is 3 days. Normally its 13 days.
How long does it for a cell to move from the Stratum Basale to the Stratum Corneum in Psoriasis? How long does it take normally?
In Psoriasis it takes 4d - normally it takes 27d.
What links epi keratinocytes to give them strength?
Desmosomes bind adjacent Epithelial Cells together. What intermediate proteins link the Intermediate Filaments to the plasma membrane?
1. Desmoplakin I and II
2. Plakoglobin
(not mentioned: Plakophilin 1)
Keratinocytes are separated by this distance:
What two proteins are involved with linking keratinocytes together?
Desmogleins and Desmocollins. They are Calcium dependent Cadherin like glycoproteins.
What are the two bullos autoimmune diseases discussed in class? What does the IS specifically attack?
1. Pemphigus foliaceus: Desmoglein 1
2. Pemphigus vulgaris: Desmogleins 1 and 3
Describe how the interaction between the Dermis and Epidermis contribute to resistance to abrasion and pressure:
(also describe how thin and think skin is different here)
1. Epi is anchored to basement membrane via hemidesmosomes and interdigitates with the dermis.
2. In thin skin, Epi ridges project into Dermal grooves. In thick skin, dermal papilly project into epi.
The dermal-epidermal junction varies with type of skin. Describe the Thick Skin vs Thin Skin relationship
1. Thick = pegs and sockets
2. Thin = ridges and grooves
How is the epidermis anchored to its basement membrane?
Via hemidesmosomes
What are the two layers of the dermis? Describe both of them with respect to their relative location and their relative densities.
1. Papillary and Reticular
2. Papillary is superficial and loose CT
3. Reticular is deep with dense irregular CT
Name these parts of the dermis
A. Loose CT of Papillary layer
B. Epidermis
C. Irregular CT of Reticular Layer
Describe the protein components of the hemidesmosome plaque. Also, what the hemidesmosme attaches to basal membrane-wise
1. Intracellular plaque includes BP230 AG and Plectin. Transmembrane plaque proteins include BP180 Ag and alpha6beta2 integrin
2. Hemidesmosome attaches to Lamina lucida and Lamina Densa
What does the IS attack in Bullous Pemphigoid?
Hemidesmosome plaque protein BP180
What is the difference between Pemphigus and Bullous Pemphigoid?
Pemphigus lesions are caused by intra-epidermal lesions due to desmosomal damage. Pemphigoid is caused by hemidesmosomal damage between epi and dermal damage.
What specifically protects the organism for UV light?
What do melanocytes produce and what are they derived from embryologically?
Produce melanin and derived from Neural Crest Cells!
After NCC make melanocytes, they begin to synthesize melanin. The melanin is packaged into: (1)
(1) is then transferred from (2) and distributed to (3) via phagocytosis.
1. Melanosomes
2. Dendritic processes
3. Keratinocytes
In addition to being carcinogenic, UV radiation causes (2):
1. Collagen and elastin damage
2. Sebaceous gland enlargement
How is SPF calculated? What does an SPF of 10 mean?
Minimal Erythema Dose with Sunscreen divided by Minimal Erythema Dose without Sunscreen.

SPF10 means that someone who normally burns in 10 min without sunscreen can stay in the sun for 100 minutes before burning with sunscreen.
Do ablinos produce melanocytes?
Yes. They do not have melanin, however.
What are the ABCDE's of malignant melanoma?
A: Asymmetry
B: Border irregularity
C: Color variation
D: Diameter
E: Evolving
What cells protect the body from microorganisms? Where do they arise and how do they function?
Langerhans. Arise in the bone marrow and function as APCs.
What cells are responsible for graft vs host disease, contact allergic dermatitis, and perhaps Psoriasis?
Describe the difference between Exocrine Glands and Endocrine glands
Exocrine have a secretory and duct portion that transport product.
Endocrine glands do not have a duct but secrete product into blood stream.
Exocrine glands can have two different secretory portions and two different ductal portions. Describe both
Secretory can be Elongated (tubular) or Clustered (acinar)
Duct portion can be unbranched (simple) or Branched (compound)
Exocrine Glands have three modes of secretion. What is each one called, how they secrete, and example(s).
1. Holocrine secrete whole cells: Sebacious glands
2. Merocrine secrete via exocytosis: sweating
3. Apocrine secrete via apical cytoplasm that actually release some cytoplasm with product. Example includes Mammary glands.
Describe the structure of Eccrine Sweat Glands
It is simple, coiled, tubular. Secretory is by simple cuboidal cells. Duct is stratified cuboidal.
What is the sweat gland innervated by?
Sympathetic nervous system
What is the mode of innervation for sweat glands? Why is this unusual?
They are innervated by the sympathetic system using Cholinergic for its postganglion NT. Unusual bc normally sympathetic uses norepinephrine for its postganglionic NT.
Sweat glands are considered to remove metabolic wastes bc they remove:
Urea and ammonia
What is this? Label - also, what is structure of the cells in A
Sweat gland
A: Darkly stained duct portion with stratified cuboidal epithelium
B: Lightly stained secretory portion
Hair follicle is a down growth of what?
Epithelial cells
What is the hair bulb?
It is a terminal expansion of the hair follicle
What is the dermal papilla?
It is the vascular tissue which projects into hair bulb.
Point out the Dermal Papilla
What causes hair to erect?
Arrector pili muscles
Why type of muscle are Arrector Pili and how are they situated in the skin? How do they pull the hair and what are they innervated by?
They are smooth muscle that are obliquely oriented to hair. They pull the hair upright and innervated by the sympathetic NS.
How is sweat glands and arrector pili muscles different with respect to the NTs it uses in the sympathetic system.
Sweat uses Acetylcholine in it post synaptic receptor.
Arrector uses Acetycholine for its pre-ganglion and norepi for its post
What is the hair buldge? What is found here?
IT is the connection point between the arector pili muscle and the hair follicle. It's where the skin stem cells reside for wound repair.
Which gland plays a major role in preventing dehydration?
Sebaceous glands
Where do sebaceous glands usually open up?
Near the top of a hair root or directly onto skin
What is the difference between non- and inflammatory acne?
Non-inflammatory do not rupture the follicles whereas inflammatory do with the inflammatory cells that rush in.
What is the difference between bn open and closed comedos?
The difference between the activity of melanocytes.
Describe the rule of nines for burn victims
Each arm = 9%
Each leg = 18%
H&N = 9%
Ant Trunk = 18%
Post Trunk = 18%
Perineum = 1%
Within the keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, there are membrane coating coating granules. What do they do?
They secrete lipids into the intercellular space to form a water resistant area of the skin
What percentage of the skin will be burned to create a life-threatening situation? What percentage of skin will be burned that almost always leads to death?
30-40%. If 75% is burned almost always fatal.
What is the cell? What does it do? Where is it found? What is it filled with?
Pacinian Corpuscle. It detects pressure and vibration. It is found in the ventricular layer of skin. It is filled with lymph-like fluid in a concentric-like fashion and includes nerves.