Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what to asses when checking for level of consciousness?
alert, lethargic, arousable, drowsy, confused,
what is oriented x 3?
orientation to PERSON, PLACE and TIME
What do you asses about the speech of the person?
Is it appropriate, slurred, incoherent, aphasic (expressive receptive)
how do you test muscle strenght?
compare both sides
upper and lower extremities
What is the most sensitive indicator of changes in neuro status?
Level of consciousness
test that measures LOC
Glasgow coma scale
on the glasgow scale,what is the rating for the (eyes open) scale
4
3
2
1
4= spontaneously
3= on request
2= to pain stim uli
1= no response
on the glasgow scale,what is the rating for "best verbal response"
5
4
3
2
1
5= oriented to time, place, person
4= engages in converation,confused in content
3=words spoken but converation not sustained
2=groans evoked by pain
1= no response
on the glasgow scale,what is the rating for the "best motor response"
6
5
4
3
2
1
6=obeys verbal command
5=reaction to painful stimuli, pain
4=flexion- withdrawal
3=flexes arms-decorticate rigidity
2=extends arem to painful stimuli-decerebrate rigidity
1=no response
on the glasgow scale,what is the rating for the "best motor response"
6
5
4
3
2
1
6=obeys verbal command
5=reaction to painful stimuli, pain
4=flexion- withdrawal
3=flexes arms-decorticate rigidity
2=extends arem to painful stimuli-decerebrate rigidity
1=no response
what are the ratings on the glasgow scale...
3-4
7-3
8-10
(8 or better)
3-4 low, high mortality
3-7 coma
8-10 semicomatose
8 < good prognosis
what is increased intracranial pressure(icp)
an increase in bulk due to blood, csf, or swelling of brain tissure or tumors leading to an increase in pressure within the cranial cavity.
factors that increase ICP
(7)
increase in PCO2
decrease in Po2
valsalva maneuver
body position
isometric muslcle contractions
coughing, vomit sneezing
emotional upset
what medications help with icp
steroids
diuretics
what does decadron (dexamethasone) do?
decrease cerebral edema by their anti inflammatory effect. decrease capillary permebility in inflammatory process, thus decreasing leakage of fluid into tissue
what does lasix, mannitol do?
decrease cerebral edema; diuretic action by carrying out large volumes of <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=water&v=56">water</a> through the nephron: complications of therapy are fluid and electrolyte imbalance
decrease body's metabloism so oxygen demand by the brain is decreased, thus preserving cell life
barbiturate coma
how to maintain skin integrity in a comatose client
relieve pressure - types of mattress
dry and wrinke free bed clothes
frequent repositioning
what are the major divisions of the nervous system
central and peripheral nervous system
WHAT MAJOR COMPONENTS MAKE UP THE CNS
brain and spinal cord
what is the pns composed of?
12 craniel nerves
31 spinal nerves
autonimic nervous system
the autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into what?
sympathetic and
parasympathetic fibers
what two types of cells does the nervous system contain?
neurons
neuroglial cells
the dendritic process is described as an ___________ pathway
afferent
the axonal process is described as the __________ pathway.
efferent
many axons are covered by this white, lipid covering known as?
myelin sheath
myelinated axons are also called what?
white matter
non-myelinated axons are also called what?
gray matter
myelinated axons have gaps in the myelin called what?
Nodes of Ranvier
the enlarged distal end of each axon is called what?
synaptic or terminal knob
Na+ and cl- ions are heavily concentrated where?
in area outside of the cell
(interstitial space)
k+ and other organic material are present where?
intracellular space
how are impulses transmitted to their eventual destination ?
synapses
what factors affect the transmission of an impulse
distance
strength
changes in ph of ecf
_____ depresses nerve cell activity, while_________ excites nerve cells
acidosis
alkalosis
chemical substances that enhance or inhibit nerve impulses?
neurotransmitters
name 7 neurotransmitters
acetylcholine
serotonin
dopamine
norepinephrine
gamma-amino butyric acid (gaba)
substance p
endorphins and enkephalins
what forms the immediate protective covering of the brain and the spinal cord?
meninges
a thin, delicate, and vascular membrane that adheres to the brain and the spinal cord?
pia mater
the middle layer is thin and delicate but is also fibrous.csf fills the weblike tissue
arachnoid
the outer layer of the brain is heavy fibrous and nonelastic
dura mater
the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum are joined by what?
corpus callosum
the basal ganglia regulate what?
movement and body tone
2 important speech areas of the cerebrum are what?
broca's area
wernicke area
brocas area is located _________and composed of neurons responsible for ______________
frontal lobe
formation of words or speech
wernicke's area is located here_______
and is responsible for what?
temporal area
processing of words into coherent thought and recognition.
The diencephalon lies below the cerebrum and includes these 3
thalamus, hypothalamus and the epithalamus
What is the major relay station of the brain?
Thalamus
This is sometimes related to as the " master gland.
pituitary gland
the brainstem includes tHe ____,____, and ______
midbrain, pons and medulla
This controls body movement, regulates visceral function, processes sensory info and transmits information to and from the brain
spinal cord
how to assess for attention?
repeat 4, 7, 3 then increase by one number until they can do seven numbers
or
count back form 100 by 7
how to test for recall memory?
accuracy of the medical history
dates of appointments
admission time
health care providers seen in past days
mode of transportation to hospital
how to test for immediate (new) memory
give three words. ask to repet after 5 minutes ask to repet the words
how to test for remote or long-term memory?
birth date, schools attended, city of birth. something that can be varified
how to test for cognition?
ask the meaning of a proverb. such as a rolling stone gathers no moss.
how to test cerebral motor or brainstem integrity
close eyes and hold arms perpendicular to body with tghe palms up for 15 to 20 seconds.
when doing a babinski <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=test&v=56">test</a>. what is a normal response?
plantar flexion of all toes
when doing the babinski test, what is an abnormal finding?
dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes
The sudden, brief, jerking contraction of a muscle or muscle groups often seen is seizures is called?
Clonus
when assessing pupils of the eye, the should be what?
perrla
pupils EQUAL, ROUND, REGULAR(in shape)
eract to LIGHT and ACCOMODATION