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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The central nervous system is made up of the?
brain
Spinal cord
the temporal area of the brain is responsible for what?
speech
the occipital area of the brain is responsible for what?
vision
what crosses the blood brain barrier
alchol, oxygen , water, drugs
what does not cross the blood brain barrier?
albumin and some antibiotics
when using the glasgow coma scale a person who has no response when asked to open eyes would get what rating?
1 = no response
a person who is oriented to time, place and person would receive what rating on the GCScale
5
a score of above 8 on the GCScale would be considered what?
good prognosis
a score of 4 on the GCScale would be considered what?
hi mortality
a score of 3-7 on the GCScale would be considered what?
coma
in general this test is not done due to the danger of herniation?
lumbar puncture
increased intracranial pressure is due to what?
incease in blood, CSF, or swelling of the brain tissue or tumors
some causes of ICP are:
trauma, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation
This impedes cerebral circulation, absorption of csf and function of nerve cells.
Increased pressure
ability of the brain to alter the diameter of the vessles to maintain a constant blood flow of oxygen and glucose to its tissue
autoregulation
What happends to autoregulation during ICP
It is lost
factors that make icp worse
coughing, vomiting, sneezing,
isometric muscle contractions
increase in PCO2
decrease in PO2
What is the most sensitvie indication of increasing intracranial pressure?
Level of consciousness
fixed dilated pupil is ominous sign of what?
ICP
what meds are used to treat ICP
steroids (decadron)
diuretics (lasix)
how does steriods help icp
decerase cerebral edema buy their anti-inflammatory effect. decrease leaking of fluids into tissues
early signs of icp are what?
dec loc
restlessness
headache
pupil changes
late signs of icp are what?
decreased loc
inc bp
dec p
dec respirations
fever vomit posturing
what is the goal for ICP
decrese pressure by maintaining adewuate blood flow with adequate oxygenation and glucose and reduction of the buildup of carbon dioxide
what medication is contraindicated due to its masking of changes in neurological status?
morphine
decrease body's metabolism so oxygen demand by the brain is decreased, thus preserving cell life?
barbiturate coma
pavolon, and norcuran are what?
paralyzing agents
- good pulmonary toilet
- daily i/o
-maintain skin integrity
are interventions for who?
a comatose client
how to maintain skin integrity for a coma tose person:
dry wrinkle fre bed clothes
frequent repositioning
relieve pressure- different types of mattresses
interventions for the confused client with decreased memory
repetition
wrtiien memory aids
small steps - simple to complex
the nursing diagnosis for a person who is aphasic would be?
alteration in communication related to aphasia, dysarthia
with an aphasica client , asses function which is expressive is also called what?
Broca's
with an aphasica client , asses function which is receptive is also called what?
wernicke
interventions for a aphasic client would be what?
use alphabet or picture board
treat client as adult
present one thought or idea at a time
yes no questions
nursing diagnosis of the dysphagic client is?
alterations in nutrition
what type of foods are easiest to swallow in a person who is dysphagic
semisolid
jello custard, mashed potatoes, ice cream
some concerns for the client who is immoble would be?
pneumonia,
dvt
fecal impaction
uti
skin breakdown
nursing diagnosis for an incontinent client would be
alteration in elimination
what method is used with bladder training?
Crede method
what medications are used for the flaccid bladder?
urecholine
what medications are used for a client with spastic bladder?
ditropan, pro-banthine
seizure whos signs are muscle contraction and relaxation?
Clonic
seizure whos signs are breif jerking, stiffening
myoclonic
seizure whos signs are sudden loss of muscle tone?
atonic (drop)
seizure common in children, staring, breif loss of consciousness
absence ( petit mal )
called grand mal seizure
tonic-clonic seizure
how long does the tonic clonic seizure last
1-5 minutes
cry out, jaws clamp shut, body stiffens, body jerks, loss of consciousness
Tonic-clonic seizures
this type of seuzures occur in the focal area of the brain
partial seizures
this seizure includes loss of consciousness, lip smacking patting, picking, post seizure amnesia
comlex partial seizure
this seizure includes no loss of consciousness, aura, unilateral movements, sensory, autonomic symptoms such as dry mouth or drooling
simple partial seizure
seuzure activity lasting thirty mnutes or more without regaining consciousness
status epilepticus
what meds are given to a patient who is status epilepticus?
iv valium (ativan or depacon, followed by dilantin
major diagnostic test for seizures is
eeg
removal of this with people who have intaractable seizures?
epileptic focus
inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord and cerbrospinal fluid
Meningitis
more serious of bacterial or viral meningitis
Bacterial
assessment of meningitis includes
rigidity
icp
vascular dysfunction
csf analysis
inflammationi of brain tissure, mostly viral cause
encephalitis
fever, stiff neck, loc changes
focal deficits, increased icp, tremors, seizures
encephalitis
this disease is mainly found with clients over 50, rare in blacks, not genetic, no cure
Parkinsons
loss in ability to refine and control voluntary movement.
parkinsons
begins unilateral, with mild tremor, slight limp and progresses
parkinsons
results in stooped posture, masked face, drooling difficulty in balance, dysphagia, blinking
bradykinesia
shuffling gait, speech changes
parkinsons
increase dopamine and decrease acetylchonline for what disease
parkinson
thermocoagulation of brain cells to decrease tremors in people with parkinsons is called
thalamotomy
majore nursing diagnoses with parkinsons is?
impaired physical mobility
a progressive, deilitation, fatal neurological disease
alzheimers
early warning signs of alzheimers
memory loss
not remembering
disorientaion of time and place
los of initative
mood changes
neurofibrillary tangles,
neuritic plaques,
and excessive loss of neurons are structural changes in the brain causing what?
alzheimers
to diagnosis alzheimers you do these tests
eeg, blood chemistries, ct scans, but only sure after death with autopsy
common meds for alzheimers
reminyl