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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
health history of musculoskeletal assessment includes
past health, history, social and personal occupation
a physical assessment would include?
posture, gait, RoM, muscle strength,inspect and palapte each joint
How to assess posture?
spine, front, back , side, lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
check gait for
smoothness, balance, stride, ataxic, unsteadiness
when inspecting a joint check for
deformity, edema, redness, swan neck , unlar drift
palpate joint for
temperture, fluid, nodules, synovial cysts, heberden and bouchard nodes, bony enlargements
what equipment do you use to check range of motion
goniometer
how do you check muscle strength?
have pt
squeeze fingers
pull and push feet
muscle strength is rated on a scale from?
0-5
how do you assess for neurocirculatory of an involved extermity?
compare affected limb with unaffected side.
what are the 5p's of abnormal findings
pain, pallor, pulselessness, parethesia, paralysis
signs of a fracture include
edema
pain
muscle spasm
deformity
ecchymosis
loss of function
crepitation
discoloration of skin due to extravasation of blood in subcutaneous tissues
ecchymosis
disruption of soft tissues or bleeding into the surrounding
edema or swelling from a fracture
why do muscle spasms occure with a fracture?
as a protective response to injury and fracture
how to heal a fracture?
IMMOBILZATION
WHAT IS HEMATOMA FORMATION IN REGARDS TO FRACTURE MANAGEMENT? and how long?
blood clot provides a structure upon which a fibrin network can build. takes 48-72hr
what is callus formation? and how long to occur
loosely woven cartilage and bone matrix. 6-21days
calcium deposits-bone become rigid and heals in 2-6 weeks
Ossification
bone returns to its normal shape and contours 1-several yrs
Remodeling
stages of bone healing (6)
hematoma formaition
cellular proliferation
callus formation
ossification
remodeling
lenth of time it takds to heal depends on fracture, immobilization, age, general health.
restore bone's normal alignment, position, length
reduction
cells at the torn ends multiply and form a soft tissue bridge
cellular proliferation
metallic device to compress fractures and to immobilize-attached to the bones by percutaneous pins
external fixation
surgical insision with the application of pins nails plates, screws to the bone
ORIF open reduction with internal fixations
ways to immobilize
cast
traction
internal and external fixation
breaks in the contimuity of the bone
fractures
break at point of contact
direct force
break distant from point of contact
shear force
uneven pull (cause)
muscle fatigue
what kind of break is it when skin is intact?
simple
what is compound fracture?
skin broken
what is imnomplete fracture?
one side of the bone
what is complete fracture?
goes through the bone
what is it when one part of the bone is driven into the other
telescoped fracture
what is it called when fractue sites are seperated>?
displaced fracture
injury from bone to a body organ is called what?
complicated fracture
thin break line is called what
hairline fracture
bone is pulled away from tendon is what
compression/avulsion
bone is broke in several little pieces.
comminuted fracture
what is a fracture of the distal radius called
colles
what is a transverse fracture
goes around
types of hip fractures include
femoral head, intertrochanteric, sub trochanteric
pre op management for hip fracture is
bucks traction
DO NOT'S with hip fractures and replacements (8)
hip into more then 90 decree flexioni
force hip into adduction or
into internal rotation
cross legs
put on own shoes or stockings until 8 weels after surgery
sit on chair without arms to aid raising to a standing position
Do's for hip replacements (5)
use toliet elevator
chairs inside shower
use pillows between legs
notify surgeon if sever pain
notify dentist of prosthesis before
so he can give antibiotics
signs of fractures include (7)
edema
pain
muscle spasm
deformity
ecchymosis
loss of funcion
crepitation
important in fracture healing
immobilization
long bone and pelvic fractures release yellow bone marrow into the blood stream
fat embolism
when does fat embolism occure?
in the first 12-72 hours
who is most at risk for fat embolism
males 20-40 or older then 80
these lodge in the lung, causing hemorrhagic intestitial pneumonitis that produces symptoms of acute respiratory distress
fat embolism
major <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=signs&v=56">signs</a> of ______ are:
respiratory cahnges, sob, tachycardia dec po2, cyanosis, peteciae
fat embolism
7 complications of fractures include:
fat embolism,
compartment syndrome
avascular necrosis
delayed and nonunion
malunion
osteomyletis
dvt
when bone heals in abnormal position predisposing to degenerative arthritis angularion it is called
malunion
signs of osteomyelitis are:
hig temps, diaphoresis, red, warm swelling
treatment of acute osteomyelitis
long term iv antibiotics
cause of dvt?
complications of immobility
treatment of chronic osteomyelitis ?
surgical debridement, iv or intraosseous antibiotics
medications used with pain and spasms include:
nsaid, muscle relaxants, narcotics, pca pumps
treatment of muscle spasms?
immobilization, ice, muscle relaxants, heat
what does rice stand for?
rest
ice
compression
elevation
surgical procedures of amputation include
open
closed
6 complications of amputation include
hemorrhage
infection
phantom limb
problems with immobility
neuroma
flexion contractures
chronic progressive systemic disease characterized by inflammation and destruction of synovial tissue in joints?
rheumatoid arthritis
occurrence in rheumatoid arthritis
all races 20-40age 3:1 female
what causes flares in rheumatoid arthritis?
physical and psychological stress
diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
x rays for cartilage, bone destruction
synovial fluid analyisis or biopsy
Lab work- ers, ra, ana
surgeries for rhumatoid arthritis
synovectomies
osteotomy
total joint replacements
cause of djd?
unknown but age genetics and obesity , trauma lack of exdercise lead to it
diagnose djd with
ex reays for erosions , osteophytes, narrowing of joint space
lab tests
surgical procedures of djd include (5)
debridement
arthrodesis
arthroplasty
osteotomy
total joint displacement
post op care issues for djd include
dislocation
infection
dvt
bleeding
neurovascular
pain managemnt
mobility
self care
morning stiffness lasting more then an hour is a sign of
rheumatoid arthritis
anemia, and effusions are common in what disease
rheumatoid arthritis
pain increases in evening and are common signs of what disease?
degenerative joint disease
heberdens nodes are common with what disorder?
djd
chronic multi-system autoimmune disease with remissions and exacerbations is what?
lupus
some signs of lupus include
red ras
alopecia
polyarthritis
fever
fatigue
anorexia
;pericarditis
inflammatory disorder resulting from deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints usually the great toe
gout
a progressive systemic disorder caused by excessive collagen deposition characterixed by inflammation, fibrosis, sclersis of skin and with organs is
systemic sclerosis (sclerodema)
chronic musculoskeletql pain disorder of unknown cause
fibromyalgia