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17 Cards in this Set

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What new religion sprang up and expanded in the Middle East after 622 AD (the Hejira)?
Islam.
What happened in 1054 to European Christendom?
The Schism: Eastern European Byzantine Empire broke away from the Western European Roman Catholics and formed the Orthodox Christian Church.
Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter asking for help because of what invaders to the Byzantine Empire?
The Seljuk Turks/Muslims.
What Pope answered the call of Alexius' letter?
Pope Urban II.
What did Pope Urban call for?
He called for all Christians to go to the holy land and win it back for Christians.
What were the Pope's motives for this Crusade?
He hoped to stop feudal knights fighting among them-selves, to reunite the Byzantine Empire/Orthodox Church, and wanted to keep the Holy Land sites open for Christian pilgrims.
What did the Pope offer as an incentive (reward) for the First Crusade?
He offered forgiveness of sins if they went/ participated on a Crusade.
What sorts of people participated?
Knights and nobles, kings, peasants, children.
How did Crusader pilgrims act as they crossed Europe?
They pillaged, robbed, etc. They attacked Jews for not being Christians.
Once the better trained knights arrived in the Holy Land, what was the outcome of the First Crusade?
(1) They seized Jerusalem and a large area of Palestine; (2) they formed four Crusader states (like feudal lord's kingdoms) in the Holy Land; (3) they horrified the Muslims and even the Byzantines with their actions.
Did the European Crusaders keep Jerusalem for the Christians?
No - they lost Jerusalem.
Did the Europeans win the Crusades?
No - all their lands in the Middle East were lost.
What two famous Christian and Muslim leaders faced each other during the 3rd Crusade?
Richard the Lionheart of England and Saladdin (A Kurdish/Iraqi lord)
What disaster befell the Fourth Crusaders?
They fell into debt in Venice and had to sack two cities before the Venetians would transport them on the Crusades. They sacked Zara and the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.
What were some religious effects of the Crusades?
Muslim- Christian hatred and distrust; Pope and Catholic Church had a short term boost in popularity but a long term decline.
What were some political effects of the Crusades?
The Byzantine Empire was weakened by not only Muslim Turks but by the Fourth Crusaders sacking their city.
What were some economic effects of the Crusades?
Northern Italian city-states became rich from shipment of crusaders and trade goods; Europeans revived interest in travel and trade with Asia and the Near East.