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90 Cards in this Set

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When blood is flowing up the aorta their is an opening that the blood flows through, what is it's name?
Aortic antrum
when the blood flows from the aortic antrum where does it go?
coranry arteries
after the blood flows from the coronary arteries, what does the blood do?
it feeds the muscles
does the coronary arteries have a lot of bends in them?
yes
when the red and white blood cells travel through the arteries do they hit the walls? Why?
seldom if ever.
They travel at a certain speed that pervents them from hitting the wall.
What happens when the speed is increased that the RBC and WBC travel?
They begen to hit the walls of the arteries.
what is endothelium?
The inner lining of an artery
Is endothemlium sticky? explain.
no, its less sticky then teflon.
What happens if the endothemlium lining is scratched?
everything sticks to it.
what is under the endothemlium lining? What happens to it when the lining is scratched?
a connective tissue layer.
It pokes through into the blood vessel.
Which arteries have a higher concentration of fat in them, then any other artery in the body?
coronary arteries
what does fat do in the arteriers after we eat it?
it accumulates in the arteries in a globs of fat. Then its moved to the lymphatic system.
What does the lymphatic system do with the fat?
it dumps into the subclavin vein.
When the subclaven has the faty blood what does it do with it?
it dumps in to the right side of the heart, then it goes to the coronary artery
what skicks to the lining of the arteries? why?
fat, because fat goes through the coronary artery.
what three things can stick to the artery wall, when their is a break or scratch in it? What does this cause?
Fat, plattets, cholesterol

artery becomes clogged.
when an artery becomes clogged, what is the name of this build up?
plaque in the arteries
which artery does plaque build up the most in? why?
Coronary arteries of the heart, because the fat goes through this artery.
what are the two ways to cause erosion of the endothilum lining?
1)speed up the blood flow (heart pumps faster/ heart rate goes up)
2. clamp down on the blood vessel, squeeze the muscle
How does clamping down on a blood vessel cause erosion?
The constriction makes the RBC and WBC hit the lining of the arteries, causing them to scratch the lining.
what two receptors are found on the smooth muscle of the arteries? what does this cause?
Epi and nicotine

contraction
what Pharmaceutical drug can cause vasoconstriction?
viagra
what outside influence can cause vasoconstriction? explain why?
stress, caffeine, (they release Epinephrine) nicotine directly causes vasoconstriction.
When the lining of the arteries get smaller, why is this a concern?
it can cause erosion of the lining, that leads to plaque.
what is the bridge called that a doctor will put in a patein that has plaque?
A collateral
when a person has a collateral, is the artery the same size, as the artery before the coateral?
No, they get smaller and smaller.
how many collaterals can a person have for each clog?
up to ten
What is the major perpose of a collateral?
to route the blood flow around the clog.
what happends to the muscle that the heart feeds when a collateral is built? why?
the blood flow is redirected, now the muscle dies where the clog is. Theres no food.
what direction does the ventercial squeeze in?
upward
after the ventricles squeeze the blood in, what happens when the way of contraction hits the clog area?
it is will not continue in that area.
what happens when their is a large area that is dead in the heart? what is thai called?
you can't squeeze the blood out of the heart.

major heart attack aka
if there is a small area in the heart that is dead what happends? What is this called
the heart can still contract, and squeeze the blood in and out.
minnor heart attact
when a persons has a major or minnor heart attact what is this referred to as?
myocardial infarction (MI)
what does the word myocardial infarcation mean?
myo= muscle
cardial= heart
infarct= block contraction can not continue
what does the body do to help when their is a clog in the arteries in the the heart? what does this cause?
make collaterals

heart attacts because the muscle dies.
what is a angioplasty?
a wire is inserted into the brekeral artery or fermoral artery to the aorta, ou the aortic antrum to coronary arteries to blow clog out?
what is the danger of angioplasty?
the clog can in up in the brian, lungs or heart. cna cause death. The artery can explode.
what is the reason people die when they have surgery?
the stress cause cortisol levels to rise, cause immune system to drop, causing immuniodeficiencies.
For most people how does the heart sit in the chest cavity? what is this called?
deviation to left

left axis deviation
if a person is really tall how does that persons heart sit?
stright down the middle
If a person is really short, or pregenat, or obese, how does that persons heart sit? what is this called?
deviation to the right

right axis deviation
is there a difference in on a tree lead EKG on a left Vs. right axis deviation
yes the right is upside down
what is the names of the vessels bring blood to the right atrium of the heart?
superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
What is the superior and inferior vena cava bringing into the heart?
deoxygenated blood
What does deoxygenated blood mean?
The RBC have dumped it oxygen off, to feed the tissues.
what is the irom refered to on the blood?
heme
what is the protein refered to on the blood?
globin
What does deoxygenated blood mean?
The RBC have dumped it oxygen off, to feed the tissues.
what is the irom refered to on the blood?
heme
what does oxygen bind to in the blood?
the heme group
What does deoxygenated blood mean?
The RBC have dumped it oxygen off, to feed the tissues.
what is the protein refered to on the blood?
globin
what does oxygen bind to in the blood?
the heme group
if you have one oxygen bound to the heme group how saturated is it? Two, three or four bound?
25 %
50%
75%
100%
what is the irom refered to on the blood?
heme
if you have one oxygen bound to the heme group how saturated is it? Two, three or four bound?
25 %
50%
75%
100%
what does a 66% saturation level tell you?
that the person doesn't have 34% bound to oxygen. Its is really bad.
what is the protein refered to on the blood?
globin
what does a 66% saturation level tell you?
that the person doesn't have 34% bound to oxygen. Its is really bad.
Once the RBC moves through the body it will dump its oxygen, does it dump all of it? explain
no, it keeps a 40% reserve in case of emergancy. example under water and cant breath.
How long can the 40% oxygen reserve keep use a live if we can't breath?
5 min.
Once the RBC moves through the body it will dump its oxygen, does it dump all of it? explain
no, it keeps a 40% reserve in case of emergancy. example under water and cant breath.
what does oxygen bind to in the blood?
the heme group
what cause brain danage after five min. with out oxygen?
no ATP, neuron don't have ATP for Na+ K+ gates and they start to die off.
if you have one oxygen bound to the heme group how saturated is it? Two, three or four bound?
25 %
50%
75%
100%
How long can the 40% oxygen reserve keep use a live if we can't breath?
5 min.
Does deoxygenated blood mean zero oxygen?
no
what does a 66% saturation level tell you?
that the person doesn't have 34% bound to oxygen. Its is really bad.
what is the value called in the right atria?
tricuspid right atrial venticaula valve
what cause brain danage after five min. with out oxygen?
no ATP, neuron don't have ATP for Na+ K+ gates and they start to die off.
Once the RBC moves through the body it will dump its oxygen, does it dump all of it? explain
no, it keeps a 40% reserve in case of emergancy. example under water and cant breath.
How does blood go from the right atria to the right ventrical?
through the valve do to gravity.
How long can the 40% oxygen reserve keep use a live if we can't breath?
5 min.
Does deoxygenated blood mean zero oxygen?
no
what cause brain danage after five min. with out oxygen?
no ATP, neuron don't have ATP for Na+ K+ gates and they start to die off.
what are the muscles called on the tricuspid?
papillary muscles
what is the value called in the right atria?
tricuspid right atrial venticaula valve
Does deoxygenated blood mean zero oxygen?
no
what is the connective tissue called that attached the papillary muscles to the tricuspid?
chordae tendiae
How does blood go from the right atria to the right ventrical?
through the valve do to gravity.
what is the value called in the right atria?
tricuspid right atrial vena cava valve
when the ventrical is filling up what does this cause?
the artia will squeeze downward, causing the valve to snap shut.
what are the muscles called on the tricuspid?
papillary muscles
How does blood go from the right atria to the right ventrical?
through the valve do to gravity.
what are the muscles called on the tricuspid?
papillary muscles
what is the connective tissue called that attached the papillary muscles to the tricuspid?
chordae tendiae
what is the connective tissue called that attached the papillary muscles to the tricuspid?
chordae tendiae
when the ventrical is filling up what does this cause?
the artia will squeeze downward, causing the valve to snap shut.
when the ventrical is filling up what does this cause?
the artia will squeeze downward, causing the valve to snap shut.