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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gnostic System
Info known from experience:
- Epicritic: Shart sensory info
- Protopathic: Diffusely localized sensory info(temp)
Info known through experimentation (posture, heart rate)
Type of sensory system: Mechanical
1. Touch
2. Hearing
3. Vestibular (head/body position)
Visible radiant energy
- smell
- taste
-common chemicals (vomeronasal [pheromones])
Free nerve ending
no capsule


Merkel's Tactal discs
cup-like ending

generalized touch

Meissner's Corpuscle
twisted w/in capsule. end of myleinated axon terminal

finger, toe, tongue, lips

Pacinian Corpuscle
Subcutaneous connective tissues


Ruffini's ending
Skin stretching
Thin capsues
found in meissner's corpuscle
Krause End Bulb
more spherical than Meissner's corpuscle

reception of cold temps
Thick capsule
nerve ending in capsule is very straight
Skin Stretching process
Generator potential spike potential AP to CNS
region of skin divided according to spinal nerves
dorasl column fibers
-fasciculus cuneatus: medial fibers, upper body sens. info

-fasciculus gracilis: lateral fibers, lower body sens info
epicritic pathway
I. Dorsal quad -> dorsal column (cuneatus & gracilis) -> medulla
II. decussation to medial lemniscus -> thalamus
III. ->primary somatosensory cortex
protopathic pathway
I. Dorsal quad -> dorsal column (cuneatus & gracilis) -> medulla
II. ascends to thalamus
III. decussation
Similarities b/w epicritic & protopathic pathways
- go to thal
- decussation
- start @DRG
- topographically organized
- 1st neuron gets sensory info
- 3 neurons (receptor ->cortex)
Differences b/w epicritic & protopathic pathways
-points of decussation
-use diff sensory receptors
glabrous skin

palms, feet, tongue, lips
rapidly adapting receptors
respond briefly to onset of stim

-brief burst of AP
-Ex. Meissner's, Ruffini, Pacinian
slowly adapting receptors
respond if stim still occurring

slow adaption
ability to discriminate based on touch

Meissner, Pacinian, Ruffini (Rapid)

Merkel & hair receptors (slow)
perception of position & movement

rapid adaption

- Muscle spindles, golgi tendo organs, joint receptors
no somatosensory input

-have movement, but can't tell when holding something
Dorsal root ganglion
-carry touch/pressure info
-lrg myelinated axons
-ascend SC -> brain in dorsal column
-sml axon synapse w/neuronse whose axons cross SC
central pain
pain where there's no injury
hypothetical neural circuit
-touch/pressure decrease activity in pain/temp pathway
-haptic-proprioceptive pathway excite interneuron
-nocioceptive pathway inhib
periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)
nuclei in midbrain. modulate pain
-excite brainstem activating systems (5-HT, noradrenaline)
referred pain
pain felt on surface, actually pain of internal organ
Cranial nerves
sensory & motor...also autonomic compound (unlike spinal nerves)
amacrine cells
connect ganglion cells w/bipolar cells
horizontal cells
connect bipolar cells w/cones & rods
Left visual field
L. eye's medial nerve
R. eye's lateral nerve
Right visual field
R. eye's medial nerve
L. eye's lateral nerve
optic radiation
axons from LGN to primary visual cortex
Eye pathway
i. contact optic nerve
ii. ganglion cell layer
- cranial nerve #2
iii. bipolar cell layer
iv. rod & cone (chem Δ)
v. pigmented epithelium
cuneus gyrus
upper section

above calcarine fissure of occ. lobe
ligual gyrus
lower section

below calcarine fissure of occ. lobe
consensual light reflex
↑ pupil size one eye...↑ size of other
Optic light reflex
i. retina -> pretectal nucleus
ii. pretect -> opp.pretect & edinger-westphal
iii. eding -> ciliary ganglion
iv. ciliary -> iris (contract)
sml blind spot
perceive light in blind region

brain knew more than conscious of
binding problem (sight)
only have the impression we perceive unified sensory world

made up of various parts
visual light
400-700 nm
wht in eye
eye's clear outer covering
contract/relax...↑ or ↓ light in
focus light
light energy initiates neural activity
rod-free area

↑ cones. vision clearest
visual illuminance
too little light...hard to see
refractive error
focal point of light front/behind receptive surface
-image blurry

1) Myopia
2) Hyperopia

can't focus on distant objects

- elongated eyeball
- excessive curvature of front cornea

can't focus on close objects
- less common
- too short eyeball, lens flat

ex. presbyopia
(old sighted)

lens lose elasticity...unable to refract light
-can't fix w/contact/glasses
convert light energy to

chemical energy to

neural activity
low level lights (night vision)

more numerous
color & high visual acuity

3 pigment types
(blue, green, red)
(short, mid, long λ)
- fewer blue cones
- 2 variants of red
3 types of retinal neuron types
1) bipolar
2) horizontal
3) amacrine
retinal ganglion cells
neural cells that give rise to optic nerve

I) magnocellular cells (M)
II) parvocellular cells (P)
Magnocellular cells (M)
lrg celled neuron - retina

sensitive to moving stim
parvocellular cells (P)
sml cell neuron - fovea

sensitive to from & color diff.
geniculostriate system
axons of P & some M

- retina -> LGN of thal
- LGN -> layer 4 of vis. cortex
(Striate cortex)
- cortex -> parietal/temp lobes
tectopulvinar system
remaining M

- retina -> superior colliculus
- sup col -> pulvinar (thal)
- pulv -> parietal/temp lobes
temporal pathway
ventral stream

parietal pathway
dorsal stream


(projection, layers, P/M)
R of each retina -> R LGN
L of each retina -> L LGN

(2,3,5) fibers from ipsilateral
(1,4,6) fibers from contralateral

P: only to 3-6
M: only to 1-2
occipital cortex
6 visual regions
primary visual cortex (V1)
striate cortex recieves input from LGN
extrastriate cortex
(2ndary visual cortex)
visual cortical area outside striate cortex
regions of color-sensitve neurons

revealed by staining for mitochondria
regions separating blobs

- form & motion perception
LGN receptive fields
can be bigger than gang cells

(can summate)
luminance contrast
amnt of light reflected by object relative to its surroundings
overlapping receptive fields
most affected by stim...@ edge
orientation detectors
max excited by bars of light oriented in particular direction
complex cells
max excited by bars of light moving in particular direction
hypercomplex cells
max excited by moving bars

...also strong inhib area @ 1 end
occular dominance columns
max responsive to info from 1 eye
trichomatic theory
color vison based on 3 primary
opponent-process theory
color vision opposition of pairs

* red - green
* blue - yellow
color constancy
percieved color constant relative to other colors

V4 lesion LOSE this
monocular blindness
destroy retina or optic nerve of 1 eye
homonymous hemianopia
blindness of entire L. or R. visual field

-Ex. cut optic tract, LGN, V1
blind of 1 quadrant of visual field

partial leaion of V1
almost constant eye movement

(how we create normal perception)
visual agnosia
inability ot recognize objects or drawings of objects

- can estimate size & orientation
- "grasp points"
"what" pathway
ventral stream (temporal)

V1 -> V2 -> V3/V4 (form/color) -> temporal visual areas -> RECOGNITION
"how" pathway
dorsal stream (parietal)

V1 -> V5/V3 (motion/form) -> posterior parietal visual area -> ACTION
optic ataxia
deficit in visual control of reaching & other movements