Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the gastrointestinal track made up of?
The alimentary cannel
What is the alimentrary cannel?
A long tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus.
What accessory organs are associated with the gastrointestinal track?
Pancreas, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder.
What is the function of the gastrointestinal tract?
What are the three phases of digestion?
Cephalic, gastric, and intestinal
What is the first process of digestion?
Mechanical digestion
What is the second process of digestion?
Chemical digestion
What is the process in the Cephalic, gastric and intestinal?
Mechanical and chemical digestion
In the first phase of digestion (cephalic) what is occurring in this phase?
whats going on in the head, anything that occurs in the digestive process prior to the food interring the stomach
What is the first thing that happens in the cephalic stage?
Sensory input
Where does the sensory input go to in the cephalic stage?
The hypothalamus
What is in the hypothalamus?
A hunger / satiety center
What does satiety mean?
I’m full
How does the hypothalamus know what is going on in the stomach?
There is a direct connection between the hypothalamus and the stomach.
What kind of connection does the hypothalamus have to the stomach?
It could be hormonal or neurological or both.
What parts of the body secretes more hormone than another part combined?
The small intestine, stomach
What does the stomach have inside its walls?
Stretch receptors
What is the job of the stretch receptors?
cause release of hormones/ neurotrasmitters in stomach and It signals satiety
When the signal is sent to satiety center?
What is the center that sits next to the satiety center?
Food becomes unappealing
What does nemesis mean?
If the satiety center is over stimulated what happens?
It will induce vomiting
If the stomach is not stretched out what does this trigger?
Hunger response
When your hungry why does your stomach rumble?
Hypothalamus stimulated parasympathetic nervous system
What does the parasympathetic stimulate?
increase Gastric motility, salivation, and gastric juices
What does gastric motility mean?
The muscles are going to be turning and having grumbling going on
What does gastric juices do?
Help digest the food
To get ready for the food what has to relaxes?
sphincter and stomach muscles
In a normal person how many ml of food can a stomach hold?
500 ml of chewed up food
What happens when as person over rides the full filing?
The elastic recoil is ruined
What happens when the stretch receptors when the stomach doesn’t go back to the normal size?
Never fill full (obesity)
What is Prayder willies syndrome?
The hypothalamus doest work and there is no satiety always hungery
Within the oral cavity what type of digestion occurs?
Mechanical and chemical
What is mechanical digestion?
Chewing the food up
What is mastication?
Chewing process
What the main purpose of digestion?
The break up large particles into small partials so absorb them into the bloodstream so they can be used for the cells
What is the job of the tong?
To move the food around and push it back for swallowing.
What is the ball of food called?
What is the danger when a person has a cavity?
It is a direct portal into bloodstream
What is the strongest substance in the human body?
What is under the Enamel?
Live cells called Denton
Denton has to be fed, what feeds them?
The root cannel has veins that carry blood to them.
Why does the enamel go past the gum line?
So the Denton is not exposed to the bacteria/ fungi in the mouth
What cause holes in the enamel?
The acid in the bacteria
What can happen when the bacteria’s from your mouth gets into your bloodstream?
It cause septicemia
Why is an abscise bad?
It pulls the gums out and exposes the Denton, this can kill you
In chemical digestion in the mouth what is used?
Salivery glads
What is the two product that the salivary glads secrete?
saliva and mucus
What is saliva made up of?
99.1% water and amylase (enzyme)
What does amylase do?
It takes complex carbohydrates and breaks them down into simple carb. Ex. Glucose fructose
What is the job of mucus in the mouth?
To help the food go down
The process of swallowing the food is called?
Why part of the body help the food from not squirting out your nose?
Uvula and soft pallet pushes upward to block off the nasal cavity
What part of the body stops the food from going into your lungs?
Epiglottis and larynx
The esophagus is typically what shape?
Flat and closed
What is the esophagus made out of?
First 1/3 is skeletal muscle second 1/3 is skeletal and smooth and last 1/3 is smooth
What is the advantage of have a combination of smooth and skeletal muscle?
To voluntarily get stuff out of the throat
What are the two layers of muscles called in the esophagus?
Longitudinal and circular
What does the? Longitudinal muscles do?
When the food comes down it will pops the esophagus open
What does the circular muscle do?
It pushes the food down into the next open part
When the longitudinal and circular muscles squeeze and pull out is called?
Where does peristalsis start and end?
Esophagus and ends in the anus
When everything is moving from the esophagus to the anus this is called what?
Peristaltic waves
The movement of the intestines occur how often and why?
Every three minutes so things don’t back up and cause a blockage
Once the food passes through the sphincter and inters into the stomach this is call what?
Gastric phase
What happens after the food inters the stomach?
Gastrolesophageal and pyloric sphincters squeeze shut
What sphincter is on top in the stomach?
Why dos the sphincters closes when food inters the stomach?
To keep food in the stomach for a longer period of time and to stop food from going back up the esophagus and causing it to be digested.
How long does it take to digest cards?
2-4 hours
How long does it take to digest proteins?
4-6 hours
How long does it take to digest fat?
6-8 hours
When food is being completely cleared from the stomach, what is this called?
Gastric empting
What are the ways to pop open the gastroesophageal sphincter?
Stress, obesity, pregnant, have a hyatal hernia
What is the hole called in the diaphragm for the Esophagus to get through?