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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
preditary and parasitic molds
3 types of preditary and parasitic molds
-water molds
-slime molds
3 points about chytrids
-are saprobes (live off decaying and decomposing organic material)
-live in marine and freshwater environments
-form filaments that stick to the surface of a host cell
4 points about water molds
-508 species.. all are saprobes
-live on plant debree in ponds, lakes, and streams (fresh water)
-produce extensive mycellium
-have the antheridium and oogonium for making male and female filaments... they were join together, form a deployed zygote.. and inturn this will become a spore
3 points about slime molds
-produce amiba-like cells
-reproduce by spores and gamates
-need warm and damp surfaces in order to exist
obtain nutrition for decaying organic material
obtain nutrition from living hosts
3 types of single-celled algee
-dinoflagellates (the cell from hell)
3 types of multi-celled algee
-red algae
-brown algae (seaweed)
-green algae
6 roles of lichens
-good bioindicater
-bring nutrients to the plants
-inrich the soil
-can make antibiotics to ward off certain decomposers that would attempt to digest them
-absorb mineral ions from substring (nitrogen from the air)
-make toxans to ward off invertibres
a fungus and a photosynthetic organism (like cyanobacteria, blue green algae) intertwined with each other in an exosymbotic relationship
3 parts of fungus
-astomycota (mushrooms/club fungus)
how a fungus reproduces
above ground mushroom puffs spores into the environment so they land and germinate
made up of individual filaments called hyphae and form a mesh like network that serves as a feeding structure for the fungus
how a fungus imports nutrients
-through the mycellium
another name for saprobe
style of metabolism for saprobes
specific way that protozoins asexually reproduce
binary fission
binary fission
method of asexual reproduction where the organism literally splits in 2
binary fission for an amiba
split is random because it does not have symetry
binary fission for a flagela
split is longitudinal
binary fission for a cilia
split takes place across the transverse axis (short axis)
contractile vacuoles
release excess waste to maintain balance between inside and outside of the cell membrane
2 types of sporizoins
-crypto sporidium
crypto sporidium
has sporozoits in its life style which are infectous to humans because they invade the innermost or outermost layer of the intestional tract
a form of protest that is usually parasitic and uses spores or sporizoics in their life cycle
a parasite that causes maleria
2 types of species that plasmodium effects
-vertibres (humans)
-invertibres (insects)
6 steps in the life cycle of plasmodium
-female anophilles mosquito carries the parasite
-the parasite enters a human host through sporozoits
-finds a home in the liver
-reproduces by binary fisson
-form merizoits as they reproduce
-as merizoits they begin to infect red blood cells and cause maleria

(the ones that do not enter the human and are stuck in circulation are picked up by the mosquitos and the cycle will repeat itself)
3 multi-celled algae
-red algae
-brown algae (seaweed)
-green algae (may be direct ansester of land based plants)
3 reasons why green algae are most like plants
-they store starch grains inside the chloroplasts
-they produce oxygen and consume carbondioxide(photosynthetic)
-they have a responsiblity for maintaining global atmosphere
5 roles of bryophytes
-pioneer plants
-form a carpet to prevent erosion
-act like a spong and hold water... releasing it gradually
-bioindicaters because they lack a cuticle or transport tissue
-provide an environment for small organisms
brings water and minerals up to the plants
brings sugar from the leaves down to the plant roots
holds on to some of the carbon dioxide within the molecular structure of the plant as opposed to releasing it into the atmosphere
2 reasons why lignin is good
-produces coal
-cools surface temperature
onserves water in the plant
a pour in the leaf that has the ability to open and close
2 roles of the stomata
-regulates carbon dioxide comming in and oxygen going out
-reserves water in the cuticle [conservation]
4 major groups of higher plants
-seedless vascular plants
example of bryophytes
example of seedless vascular plants
pine tree
example of gymnosperms
naked seed
example of angiosperms
seedless nonvascular plants
6 steps in the life cycle of mosses (bryophytes)
-mature sporeophyte is dependent on the gametophyte
-spores form by myosis and are released through the antheridium on the sporangium
-spores germanate and develope into male or female gametophytes
-the sperm reaches through water on the plants surface (no water, no fertilization)
-fertilization takes place
-the zygot grows inside the archigodium and developes into a mature sporophyte

(if the sperm does not find an archigodium, it waits for some natural occurance to move it)
4 steps in the life cycle of ferns (seedless vascular plants)
-the sorus, a spore producing structure, on the underside of the frond, releases spores
-the spores germinate and produce gametophytes
-fertilization occurs in the heart shapped structure on the underside of the gameotophyte (in each hump of the heart, there is a sperm producting agent and an egg producing agent; there must be water present for germination)
-the zygote developes into a sporophyte which is still attached to the gametophyte
7 steps in the life cycle of pine trees (gymnosperms)
1. have a mature canafur that developes both male and female components
2. through myosis
a. in males, microspores that form in the male cone develope into pollen grains
b. in females, megaspores that form in the ovials (2 ovials) of the female cone and develop into eggs
3. the male cone ejects those pollen grains and those pollen grains are carried by the wind (no water on the surface is no longer neccessary)
4. the pollen grain lands and germinates, forming the male gameotophyte.. the sperm nucleus moves down the pollen tube as it grows towards the egg
5. fertilization takes place with the zygot developing into a seed (located in pinecones)
6. the male pinecones fall from the tree and become fertilizer whereas the female pinecones plant new trees
7. from the seedling, a mature sporophyte developes
4 steps in the life cycle of lilly's (angiosperms)
1. mature flowering sporophyte contains pollen sacks and an overy
2. microspores in pollen sacks develope into pollen grains through myosis and megaspores develope in ovials through myosis and mytosis into a multi nucleated cell
a. 7 or 8 nuclei are in each megaspore
b. the cytoplasm eventually divids
c. once it divides into egg, endosperm, and nutrative tissue, we now have the female gameotophyte, the egg.
3. after pollen grains are deposited on the female pollen structure, pollination occurs
(the 2 contain 2 sperm nuclei, the true male gameotophyte)
4. a double fertilization takes place.
a. once sperm nuclei fertilizes the egg, the other sperm nuclei fertilizes the endosperm
b. the rest of them become food to nurish the seed
the opening at the top of the sporangium
the top of the moss that releases spores
what the sporophyte is dependent on and why
the gametophyte because it grew first
the tip of the sporophyte that releases spores
the sperm producing structure at the top of the gametophyte
the egg producing structure at the top of the gametophyte
the sperm nucleus
male and reproductive organs are in same flower