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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the Bioshere?
Global ecosystem. all ecosystems combined on earth.
What is a biota?
collectively, all living organisms in an individual's environment.
What provides the scientific understanding underlying environmental issues?
Ecology
T or F. Evironment/organism interactions limit the distribution of species.
T
What is the study of past and present distribution of individual species?
Biogeography
What are species transplants?
When species are intentionally or accidentally relocated from original distribution.
What are 4 biotic factors affecting species dispersal?
Predation
Interaxns w/ other species
Competition
Absence of important species.
What are 5 abiotic conditions affecting Dispersal of species?
Wind
Water
Sunlight
Rocks/Soil
Temperature
T or F. Populations are Dynamic.
True
What is a dynamic interplay bt/w processes that add individuals to a population and processes that take individuals from it?
Density.
T or F. the logistic model fits many real populations.
False, but it's useful for estimating possible growth.
In Density-independent pop., what happens?
Birth rates and death rates are not affected by density
In Density-Dedependent pop., what happens
Birth rates fall while death rates rise with population density.
What are density independent factors?
Weather and
Climate.
What are 9 density dependent factors?
Food,
nutrients,
space,
Light
health
Territoriality
Competition for resources
Toxic waste accumulation
Predation increase
Clumped dispersion is influenced by what?
Resource availability and behavior.
Uniform dispersion is influenced by what?
Social interactions, like territoriality
what is a life table?
age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population.
Explain each of the 3 types of survivalship curves.
Type 1= low death rates among young and mid-aged, high among old
type 2= moderate- constant death rate throughout life.
type 3 = high death rates among old, decreasing rate as life progresses.
What do life history traits affect?
an organisms pattern of survival and reproduction
difference btw semelparity and iteroparity?
semelparity = one shot to reproduce
iteroparity= produce offspring repeatedly over time.
the fact that organisms have Finite resources leads to what?
trade-offs btw reproduction and survival
what happens when a population reaches K?
dynamic equilibrium, where birth rate = death rate
what do proximate questions focus on?

what do ultimate questions focus on?
the environmental stimuli that trigger a behavior

Ultimate focus on the evolutionary significance of a behavior.
what is a Fixed action pattern>
a Series of innate behaviors that is unchangeable, and that is triggered by a sign stimulus.
what type of behavior included learning AND innate components, and is generally irreversible?
Imprinting
what is a sensitive period, and with what type of behavior does it coincide with?
time in early life that is the only time a species can learn a certain behavior

Imprinting
what are animal movements that are under substantial Genetic influence?
Directed movements
what are two types of directed movements? explain both
kinesis- simple change in movement in response to a stimulus

taxis-automatic movement to or away from a stimulus
what is a signal?
a behavior that causes a change in another animals behavior.
how are production and responses to pheromones controlled?
genetically
what is a loss in response to a stimulus that convey little or no info for the increase of fitness?
habituation
What is the connection btw an animals behavior and nervous system?
cognitive ethology
what are the 5 interactions within a community?
predation
competition
disease
herbivory
symbiosis
what is the competitive exclusion?
where 1 species is locally eliminated after competing for a resource with another species
what's a niche?
total use of an organisms biotic and abiotic resources in an environment.
what is the diff btw a fundamental niche, and a realized niche.
fundamenta= potential
realized = actual
what's resource partitioning?
the difference in niches btw similar species that allows them to coexist in an ecosystem
diff btw batesian mimicry and mullerian mimicry
Batesian- harmless species mimics a harmful species

mullerian= harmful mimics harmfulq
what is aposematic coloration?
warns predators to stay away
T or F. Disturbance usually increases species diversity.
F
what is ecological succession?
the series of changes after a disturbance. (species in or out of an ecosystem)
diff btw primary and secondary succession
primary- success begins where no soil and little life exists

secondary- success occurs where soil remains after the disruption
Define biophilia
our sense of connection to nature and other life forms