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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a muscle cell called?
(smooth, cardiac, skeletal)
What does it mean when a protein is a contractile?
They can shange shape and shorten.
What is the connective tissue (protective covering) that covers myofibers? What is its job?

it helps cells to stick together
What is it called when cells are bundled together?
A fascicle
What is it called when the sticky connective tissue covers (Like a sheet) bundled muscle cells?
What causes Tropin complex to remove the Tropomyosin and put it back?
What moves the tropomysin?
Tropin Complex
What are the proteins that CA++ interact with to start/stop muscle contractions?
1. Myosin Contracts
2. Actin (G-actin) contacts
3. Tropomysin release
What prevents binding of the myosin to the G-actin? What does it cause?

When a muscle is constantly contracting what is this called?
Tetane aka tetanus
What is on G-actin? what will occur?
A binding site for myosin.

Muscle contraction will occur, when myosin binds to G-actin.
What is the one and only neurotransmitter used for skeletal muscle?
What accumulates in the transverse tubules? Why?
K+ this triggers the openning of Ca++ will diffuses out the endoplasma reticulm to trigger the muscle contraction that occurs.
In a persons face, what gives us good control over facial expressions Vs. the gastrocnemius muscle?
Their are 1000 neuron endings stimulating one muscle in the face, for better control Vs. only one per cell in the gastrocnemius.
Tha area that the neuron talks to the muscle is called what?
Myoneural junction
What is the area between the synapses called from neuron to muscle?
myoneural cleft
what happens when the motor neuron release the neurotransmitter?
The acetylcholine will bind to the receptors on the cell membrane.
In the cell membrane what triggers the releases of Ca++?
1.The brain (because it motor neurons)
2. the divets on the cell membrane interacts with neurtransmitters, & receptors to start and action potential.
In order to start a muscle contraction, what must be present in the cell? Where does it come from?
It must come from the endoplasmic reticulum to invade the cell.
What kind of gates does the endoplasmic reticulum have?
Ca++ gates
What is the important jobfor the endoplasmic reticulum in all calls?
It is a storage unit for Ca++.
Uner the skeletal muscle memberane, what runs the course of the muscle cell? What is coming off of it?
Transverse Tubules aka T-tubules

Sarcoplasmic reticulum
When you look inside a muscle cell and see the rods of protein, what are they called?
what are the two major proteins that make up the myofibril? Are they thick or thin filament?
Actin and myosin
(Thin) (thick)
what are actin and myosin called?
contractile proteins
why is their connective tissue around muscle? give examples?
1. it holds the muscle together.
2. when one muscle contracts it makes the whole muscle contract.
when looking at skeletal Vs. cardiac muscle, do they contract the same way? explain.
No, skeletal muscle one or all can muscles can contract.
cardiac, all the whole muscle contracts together.
what is the only thing that could cause cardiac muscle not to contract properly?
an electrical break down some where.
when all the cardic muscle contracts for sure, what is it called?
when you have one or two muscle cells contracting, what is this called?
a twitch
What cause scurvy? what is the biggest symptom? who gets this?
1. lack of Vitiman C.
2. Teeth falling out
3. drunks and people that don't eat.
what is the connective tissue that is continous with the tendons?
what is the difference between myo and sarco?
myo is for any muscle.
sarco is specific for skeletal muscle.
What ia a lemma?
what are the three lemma's? Why are they called this?
Lemma= cell membrane

plasmalemma- plasma cell membrane
neurilemma- neuron cell membrane
sarcolemma- skeletal cell membrane.
when a person has more protein rods (myofibrils) what does this do?
the person is stronger.

the greater their force of contraction.
what does a person need to be able to increase their muscle, besides lifting weights? explain, why?
Eat protein

have to consume more protein to make more protein.
What physiologically is lifting weights going to do?
It make a person stronger by
making more myofibrils, by stimulating protein synthesis.
explain what the difference is between eating 16 chickens Vs. protein shakes. Is it okay to only drink the shakes? why?
You get a full feeling from the fat in the chickens.
Shakes don't give the full feeling causing more to be consumed, causing amino acids to suck water causing high BP.
in skeletal muscle it is striated why? what is this repeating pattern called?
The repeated z-line and m-lines

the rods that are on the outside of the z-line, where do they attach?
The cell membrane
what is the functional unit of skeletal muscle?
where does every z-line attach?
to the rod next to it.
what is hooked to the z-line?
proteins called actin
what is hooked to the m-line?
A protein called mysin
what are the proteins that make the muscle contract/ move?
actin and myosin
what surrounds the myofibrial? what is the other name of this?
The endoplasmic reticulum
sarcoplasmic reticulum
what is the sliding filament theory? when does it start?
where the muscle actually moves. It starts when the myosin grabs a hold of the G-actin.
What does myosin do to the g-actin as soon as it grabs on to it?
It pulls it towards the m-line.
when the myosin grabs a hold of the g-actin, what is it called? what shape is it?
cross bridge
high energy shape or configration.
what is also attached to the myosin head after it grabed a hold of g-actin?
a phosphate and ADP
When the myosin head binds what does it do next?

what is this called?
it changes shape and pulls on the actin.
the working stroke aka power stroke.
when the myosin pulls and changes shape, what happens to the ADP and phosphate?
they fall off, to be recycled
what happens after the myosin head pulls toward the m-line?
it has to let go, because it needes to continuously pull to get a greater movement. exaple pulling on a rope with one hand while letting go with the other.
Are all of the myosin heads binding at once?
no, because they have to grab and let go to get a greater movement.
Why are the myosin heads pulling? what does this cause?
to bring the m-lines towards the Z-lines.
Its cause the muscle to bulge.
What happens when all the z-lines are moved towards the middle?
it cause the bone to move causing a bulge.
what is needed to pull myosin and actin pull apart?
ATP breaks the myosin heads off the actin.
when is ATP needed in the contraction process?
ATP is only need to make the muscle relax.
What energy shape is myosin going to be in after it has been broken apart from actin?
Its goes from a high energy to a low energy, causing it not to be able to bind to the actin any more.
when the myosin head lets go and the myosin ahd been broken fron the action, how do they get back together?
With an enzyme called ATPace
it breaks down ATP to ADP and a phosphate, so it can grab hold again.
What give a person a greater force of contraction?
the more myosin heads that grab hold of the actin.
when determing the how much force is need to pick up a pin what are the steps that your body must do?
the brain sends a small amount of acetylcholine to release a small amout of Ca++, now I have a small amount of actin and myosin that bind and I pick up the pin correctly.
What does creatine do naturally?
creatine give a instant energy until ATP can be made. (15 to 30 sec)
what does creatine have bound to it? explain why?
Phosphate, the phosphate is then remove by a enzyme and put on ADP to make ATP for energy.
creatine is a what?
a transfer protein to pick up phosphates to make quick energy for the 15 to 30 sec needed before ATP is made.
what two things happen if I dont need creatine?
1. excessive amino acids can be converted into fat.
2. excessive amino acids can be secreted out of the kidneys into the urina causing high BP in the kidneys.
what is the reason that body builders take creatine?
it causes them to retain water. So there muscles look bigger.