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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the S&S of an allergy
sneezing, coughing, itching, headache, nasal congestion, urticaria
What is anaphylaxis
severe hypersensitivity reaction, decrease B/P, Increase P, bronchial constriction which leads to circulatory collapse
What are the reactions to histamines
swelling, redness, and heat
Where in the body are histamines found
Mast cells and white blood cells (basophils) Skin, lungs and GI tract
What are the actions of antihistamines
blocks effects of histamines
What are the uses for antihistamines
relieve S&S of allergy, antiemetic, motion sickness
What are the side effects of antihistamines
CNS depression, Dizziness, muscle weakness, dry mouth, thick mucus, excitation in children
chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimenton)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
loratadine (Claritin)
brompheniramine (Dimetane)
Antihistamines
What are the nursing implications for antihistamines
Assess and record response- increase/decrease in BP, safety precautions r/t drowsiness, overuse leads to rebound effect, mouth care- sips of water
What are the actions of Decongestants
Sympathomimetic agents that produce localized vasoconstriction, decrease nasal swelling- opens the airway
What are the uses for decongestants
rhinitis, hay fever, sinusitis
What are the side effects of decongestants
overuse and rebound effect, jittery, nervous, or restlessness
What are the conditions to caution with the use of decongestants
heart disease, HTN, hyperthyroid
spherine (Efedron)
oxymetazoline (Dristan)
phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
Decongestants
What are the nursing implications for decongestants
How to admin drop/nose spray, moisturize air, FF to liquefy respiratory secretions, Check w/MD if S&S persist
What are the physiological effects of Bronchodilators
Mimic the action of epinephrine; Cause bronchodilation by relaxing smooth muscle
What actions do bronchodilators have on the body
allows more air flow in, relieves respiratory distress, stabilize mast cells so they don't secrete histamine- decreases bronchospasms
What are the uses for bronchodilators
asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
What are the cardiovascular side effects of bronchodilators
tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension and increase of HR
What are the CNS side effect of bronchodilators
anxiety, nervousness, and restlessness, H/A, insomnia, N/V
albuterol (Ventolin)
levalbuterol (Xopenex)
metaproterenol (Alupent)
salmeterol (Serevent)
Bronchodilators
sympathomimetics
ipratropium (Atrovent)
Bronchodilators
anticholinergic
oxtriphylline (Choledyl)
theophylline (Theodur)
Oral Bronchodilator
Xanthine derivatives
cromolin (Nasalcrom)
Bronchodilator
Mast cell stabilizer
montelukast (Singulair)
Bronchodilator
Leukotrine antagonists
fluticasone (Flovent)
Bronchodilator
Steroids
fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair)
Bronchodilator
Combination sympathetic/steroids
what order should a nurse give bronchodialators when multiple drugs are used
1. Adrenergic bronchodilator
2. ipratropium (Atrovent)
3. Steroid
What are the nursing implicaitons for bronchodilators
Check P/R before and after admin, monitor theraputic effects, lung sounds
What it the pt. teaching for bronchodilators
do not exceed dose, use, FF and avoid caffeine, use bronchodilator first, B/P, oral meds w/food, O2 sats
What are the actions of antitussives
relieve or decrease the frequency of cough by...
depressing cough centers in mudulla
anesthetizing stretch receptors in respiratory passageways
What are the uses for antitussives
decrease frequesncy of non-productive cough
What are the side effects of antitussives
N/V, drowsiness and respiratory deprssion with codeine
codeine
benzonatate (Tessalon)
dextromethorphan
dydrocodone (Hycodan)
diphenhydramine (Benylin)
Antitussives
What are the nursing implications for antitussives
Chronic use, liquefy secretions with FF and humidify air, drowsiness- safty percautions, avoid taking w/water,
What are the actions of expectorants
liquefy respiratory secretions and DO NOT stimulate caugh
What are the uses for expectorants
Helps clear airway i.e.,COPD and bronchitis
guaifenesen (Hytuss, Robitussin)
Expectorants
What are the nursing implications for expectorants
monitor type and frequency of cough, keep pt. hydrated
What are the actions of antacids
Neutralize acidity
What are the uses for antacids
relieve pain associated with excessive HCl in stomach
What are the actions of systemic antacids
dissolve in gastric juices, absorbed into blood stream and alters electrolyte/pH balance, systemic alkalosis
What are the actions of nonsystemic antacids
not digested and insoluble
What are the nursing implications for nonsystemic antacids
mask severe problems, large amounts of sodium, take 1-2hr after meal
aluminum hydroxide (Amphogel)
aluminum & magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta)
nonsystemic antacids
What is the actions of H2 antagonist and Proton Pump Inhibitors
inhibit action of histamine, thus reducing HCl secreations
What are the uses for H2 antagonist and Proton pump inhibitors
treat ulcers/GERD, conditions that increase HCl secretions like steroid use
What are the side effects of H2 antagonist and proton pump inhibitiors
diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, confusion
cimentidine (Tagamet)
famotidine (Pepcid)
ranitidine (Zantac)
nizatidine (Axid)
H2 antagonists
omeprazole (Prilosec)
pantoprazole (Protonix)
lansoprazole (Prevacid)
esomeprazole (Nexium)
Proton pump inhibitors
When is the best time to admin H2 and PPI
H2- w/meals and h.s
PPI- 30 minutes before meals
Nursing implications for H2 and PPIs
Antacids interfere with absorption and avoid ETOH and NSAIDS because it causes GI upset
tincture of opium (C-II)
diphenoxylate (Lomotil)
loperamide (Imodium)
Antidiarrheal agents that slows peristalsis
what are the nursing implications for antidiarrheal agents that slows paristalsis
Watch for overuse-constipation
can be habit forming
Kaopectate
Donnagel
antidiarrheal agents that bind with irritant drug, toxin, bacteria,(absorbants)
What are the nursing implications for antidiarrheal absorbants
decrease fluid content in stool, and may interfere w/absorption of other drugs
lactobacillus (Lactinex)
antidiarrheal Lactobacillus products that increase the normal GI bacterial population
What are the side effects of antidiarrheal agents
mask serious disorders
What are the nursing implicaitons for all antidiarrheal agents
I/O, amount, # and nature of stool, fluid electrolyte imbalances, avoid stimulus to bowels- hot/cold foods, use after loose stool, consider C.Difficile organism
What are the actions of laxatives
facilitates passage/elimination of stool
What are the types of laxatives
Bulk-Forming, Stool Softeners, Saline Laxatives, Emollients, stimulants, Bowel prep, Osmotic
What is the action/nursing implications for Bulk-Forming laxative
Contain vegetable fibers

Need to take w/water to avoid impaction
psyllium (Metamucil)
methylcellulose (Citrucil)
Bulk-Forming laxative
What are the actions/nursing implicaitons for stool softeners
Lowers surface tension causing more retention of water, detergent like action w/o cramping, take days to take effect
ducosate Ca+ (Surfak)
ducosate Na+ (Colace)
Stool softeners
What are the actions/nursing implications for saline Laxatives
pull water into intestines and produce loose watery stools, care with frail elderly cause electrolyte imbalance
Milk of Mag
Fleets enema
Saline laxatives
What are the actions/nursing implicaitons for emollients
Lubricate intestional wall and soften stool, may inhibit fat soluble vitamins
mineral oil
Emollient
What are the actions/nursing implications for stimulants
increase peristalsis by direct action on intestinal wall, can lead to electrolyte imbalance and cause dependence
discodyl (Dulcolax)
senna (Senokot)
stimulant laxitaves
Polyethylene Glycol-Electolyte Solution (GoLYTELY)
Bowel Prep
What are the action/nursing implicaitons for bowel prep
H2O soluble glycol cause large amount of water retained in colon, within 60 mins stool, evacuate bowel, 4L in 3hr (240mL/10min), little prob w/electrolyte imbalance, cause fatigue
What are the actions of osmotic laxatives
Increases water retention in bowel
Lactulose (Chronulac)- ETOH removal
Magnesium Citrate (Citrate of Magnesia)
Osmotic laxatives
What are the uses for laxatives
Prevent/relieve constipation, bowel prep, Dx tests, surgery
What are the nursing implications for all laxatives
discourage regular use, record keeping, admin at times that dont interfere w/activities, do not give w/ab pain or N/V unless orderd by MD